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Hybrid WDM–TDM PON (wavelength division multiplexing–time division multiplexing passive optical network) that applies wavelength-independent or colorless ONU (optical network unit) technologies will further reduce implementation and maintenance expenses. The “wavelength-reuse” colorless ONU technology imposes a physical constraint in the hybrid WDM–TDM PON(More)
CpG repression in RNA viruses has been known for decades, but a reasonable explanation has not yet been proposed to explain this phenomenon. In this study, we calculated the CpG odds ratio of all RNA viruses that have available genome sequences and analyzed the correlation with their genome polarity, base composition, synonymous codon usage, phylogenetic(More)
Geminiviridae consists of a large group of single-stranded DNA viruses that cause tremendous losses worldwide. Frequent mixed infection and high rates of recombination and mutation allow them to adapt rapidly to new hosts and overcome hosts’ resistances. Therefore, an effective strategy able to confer plants with resistance against multiple begomoviruses is(More)
BACKGROUND Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) is a major cool season forage and turf grass species grown in the temperate regions of the world. In this paper we report the generation of a tall fescue expressed sequence tag (EST) database developed from nine cDNA libraries representing tissues from different plant organs, developmental stages, and(More)
Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is an important economic crop and there is obvious heterosis in cotton, fertility has played an important role in this heterosis. However, the genes that exhibit critical roles in anther development and fertility are not well understood. Here, we report an acyl-CoA N-acyltransferase (EC2.3; GhACNAT) that plays a key role in anther(More)
  • Yongzhen Pang, Xiaofei Cheng, David V. Huhman, Junying Ma, Gregory J. Peel, Keiko Yonekura-Sakakibara +7 others
  • 2013
In the first reaction specific for proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago truncatula, anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) converts cyanidin to (−)-epicatechin. The glucosyltransferase UGT72L1 catalyzes formation of epicatechin 3′-O-glucoside (E3′OG), the preferred substrate for MATE transporters implicated in PA biosynthesis in(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate in a comprehensive biomechanical study the influences of fixed C1-C2 and different C1-C2 angles on the range of motion (ROM) and the intradiscal pressure (IDP) of subaxial cervical spine. METHODS We simulated three-dimensional cervical motions on 8 human specimens with C1-C2 fixed in 3 different angles (neutral position, neutral(More)
Selecting appropriate initial values is critical for parameter estimation in nonlinear photosynthetic light response models. Failed convergence often occurs due to wrongly selected initial values when using currently available methods, especially the kind of local optimization. There are no reliable methods that can resolve the conundrum of selecting(More)
The liver is the most frequent site of metastasis in colorectal cancer (CRC), in which long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) may play a crucial role. In this study, we performed a genome-wide analysis of lncRNA expression to identify novel targets for the further study of liver metastasis in CRC. Samples obtained from CRC patients were analyzed using Arraystar(More)