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The weakly inwardly rectifying K(+) channel Kir4.1 is found in many glial cells including astrocytes. However, questions remain regarding the relative contribution of Kir4.1 to the resting K(+) conductance of mature astrocytes in situ. We employed a bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic approach in mice to visualize Kir4.1 expression in vivo. These(More)
SeSAME syndrome is a complex disease characterized by seizures, sensorineural deafness, ataxia, mental retardation and electrolyte imbalance. Mutations in the inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir4.1 (KCNJ10 gene) have been linked to this condition. Kir4.1 channels are weakly rectifying channels expressed in glia, kidney, cochlea and possibly other(More)
Sloan-Kettering virus gene product (Ski) is an unique nuclear pro-oncoprotein and belongs to the ski/sno proto-oncogene family. Ski plays multiple roles in a variety of cell types, it can induce both oncogenic transformation and terminal muscle differentiation when expressed at high levels. Ski/SnoN are important transcription regulators of the transforming(More)
Synchronization of preimplantation embryo development to blastocysts is one of the prerequisites for normal embryo implantation. While previous studies have ascribed an adverse effect to aberrant opioid signaling on embryo and fetal development, it has remained unclear whether the opioid system is operative in early pregnancy events. In the present study,(More)
Morphine is the oldest worldwide well-known opioid agonist used for pain treatment in clinic, and its illicit use is often associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans. Because of recent dramatic increases in nonmedicinal morphine abuse, one emerging issue is the further revelation of the dark side of illicit opioid uses, particularly in early(More)
Astrocytes produce a complex repertoire of Ca2+ events that coordinate their major functions. The principle of Ca2+ events integration in astrocytes, however, is unknown. Here we analyze whole Ca2+ events, which were defined as spatiotemporally interconnected transient Ca2+ increases. Using such analysis in single hippocampal astrocytes in culture and in(More)
This paper reviewed the approaches of error handling in spoken dialogue systems in the literature at first. To take advantage of domain knowledge and the characteristics of the errors in Chinese speech recognition, a similarity between text strings from speech recognizer and the correct words was defined. A similarity-based algorithm of error handling in(More)
Mammalian extraocular muscles contain singly innervated twitch muscle fibers (SIF) and multiply innervated nontwitch muscle fibers (MIF). In monkey, MIF motoneurons lie around the periphery of oculomotor nuclei and have premotor inputs different from those of the motoneurons inside the nuclei. The most prominent MIF motoneuron group is the C group, which(More)
The paper presents a method for surface reconstruction from large unorganized and noisy point sets without any normal or orientation information. Firstly, the outliers will be selected and deleted, and acquire new point sets being less noisy with improved method of fuzzy c-means clustering. Secondly, we compute the normal of the new point sets through PCA(More)