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Secreted Wnt proteins play essential roles in many biological processes during development and diseases. However, little is known about the mechanism(s) controlling Wnt secretion. Recent studies have identified Wntless (Wls) and the retromer complex as essential components involved in Wnt signaling. While Wls has been shown to be essential for Wnt(More)
Orexin-A, synthesized by neurons of the lateral hypothalamus helps to maintain wakefulness through excitatory projections to nuclei involved in arousal. Obvious changes in eye movements, eyelid position and pupil reactions seen in the transition to sleep led to the investigation of orexin-A projections to visuomotor cell groups to determine whether direct(More)
Motoneurons of the oculomotor nucleus subserving multiply innervated muscle fibres (MIF) receive different afferent inputs from the motoneurons subserving singly innervated muscle fibres (SIF). We asked whether MIF and SIF motoneurons have different neurotransmitter signalling expression profiles. Adult rhesus monkey extraocular muscles were injected with(More)
The weakly inwardly rectifying K(+) channel Kir4.1 is found in many glial cells including astrocytes. However, questions remain regarding the relative contribution of Kir4.1 to the resting K(+) conductance of mature astrocytes in situ. We employed a bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic approach in mice to visualize Kir4.1 expression in vivo. These(More)
Satellite glial cells (SGCs) surround primary afferent neurons in sensory ganglia, and increasing evidence has implicated the K(+) channels of SGCs in affecting or regulating sensory ganglion excitability. The inwardly rectifying K(+) (Kir) channel Kir4.1 is highly expressed in several types of glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS) where it has(More)
Notch signaling mediates multiple developmental decisions in Drosophila. In this study, we have examined the role of Notch signaling in Drosophila larval optic lobe development. Loss of function in Notch or its ligand Delta leads to loss of the lamina and a smaller medulla. The neuroepithelial cells in the optic lobe in Notch or Delta mutant brains do not(More)
Astrocytes produce a complex repertoire of Ca2+ events that coordinate their major functions. The principle of Ca2+ events integration in astrocytes, however, is unknown. Here we analyze whole Ca2+ events, which were defined as spatiotemporally interconnected transient Ca2+ increases. Using such analysis in single hippocampal astrocytes in culture and in(More)
Mammalian extraocular muscles contain singly innervated twitch muscle fibers (SIF) and multiply innervated nontwitch muscle fibers (MIF). In monkey, MIF motoneurons lie around the periphery of oculomotor nuclei and have premotor inputs different from those of the motoneurons inside the nuclei. The most prominent MIF motoneuron group is the C group, which(More)
SeSAME syndrome is a complex disease characterized by seizures, sensorineural deafness, ataxia, mental retardation and electrolyte imbalance. Mutations in the inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir4.1 (KCNJ10 gene) have been linked to this condition. Kir4.1 channels are weakly rectifying channels expressed in glia, kidney, cochlea and possibly other(More)