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Secreted Wnt proteins play essential roles in many biological processes during development and diseases. However, little is known about the mechanism(s) controlling Wnt secretion. Recent studies have identified Wntless (Wls) and the retromer complex as essential components involved in Wnt signaling. While Wls has been shown to be essential for Wnt(More)
Notch signaling mediates multiple developmental decisions in Drosophila. In this study, we have examined the role of Notch signaling in Drosophila larval optic lobe development. Loss of function in Notch or its ligand Delta leads to loss of the lamina and a smaller medulla. The neuroepithelial cells in the optic lobe in Notch or Delta mutant brains do not(More)
SeSAME syndrome is a complex disease characterized by seizures, sensorineural deafness, ataxia, mental retardation and electrolyte imbalance. Mutations in the inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir4.1 (KCNJ10 gene) have been linked to this condition. Kir4.1 channels are weakly rectifying channels expressed in glia, kidney, cochlea and possibly other(More)
Astrocytes produce a complex repertoire of Ca2+ events that coordinate their major functions. The principle of Ca2+ events integration in astrocytes, however, is unknown. Here we analyze whole Ca2+ events, which were defined as spatiotemporally interconnected transient Ca2+ increases. Using such analysis in single hippocampal astrocytes in culture and in(More)
The weakly inwardly rectifying K(+) channel Kir4.1 is found in many glial cells including astrocytes. However, questions remain regarding the relative contribution of Kir4.1 to the resting K(+) conductance of mature astrocytes in situ. We employed a bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic approach in mice to visualize Kir4.1 expression in vivo. These(More)
Mammalian extraocular muscles contain singly innervated twitch muscle fibers (SIF) and multiply innervated nontwitch muscle fibers (MIF). In monkey, MIF motoneurons lie around the periphery of oculomotor nuclei and have premotor inputs different from those of the motoneurons inside the nuclei. The most prominent MIF motoneuron group is the C group, which(More)
Silk gland cells undergo multiple endomitotic cell cycles during silkworm larval ontogeny. Our previous study demonstrated that feeding is required for continued endomitosis in the silk gland cells of silkworm larvae. Furthermore, the insulin signaling pathway is closely related to nutritional signals. To investigate whether the insulin signaling pathway is(More)
—This paper presents a unified model, consisting of a linear dynamic system and a bounded static nonlinear operator. Most discrete-time chaotic systems, such as chaotic neural networks, Chua's circuits, and Hénon map etc, can be transformed into this unified model. Based on the H ∞ performance analysis of the estimation error system between the unified(More)