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A major antiviral mechanism in plants is mediated by RNA silencing, which relies on the cleavage of viral dsRNA into virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) by DICER-like enzymes. Members of the Argonaute (AGO) family of endonucleases then use these vsiRNA as guides to target viral RNA. This can result in a phenomenon known as recovery, whereby the(More)
A multiplex RT-PCR (mRT-PCR) assay was developed for detection and differentiation of the Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), which are viruses frequently occurring in pear trees. Different combinations of mixed primer pairs were tested for their specificity and sensitivity for the(More)
RctB serves as the initiator protein for replication from oriCII, the origin of replication of Vibrio cholerae chromosome II. RctB is conserved between members of Vibrionaceae but shows no homology to known replication initiator proteins and has no recognizable sequence motifs. We used an oriCII based minichromosome to isolate copy-up mutants in Escherichia(More)
We successfully substituted Escherichia coli's origin of replication oriC with the origin region of Vibrio cholerae chromosome I (oriCI(Vc)). Replication from oriCI(Vc) initiated at a similar or slightly reduced cell mass compared to that of normal E. coli oriC. With respect to sequestration-dependent synchrony of initiation and stimulation of initiation by(More)
In plants, RNA silencing regulates gene expression through the action of Dicer-like (DCL) and Argonaute (AGO) proteins via micro RNAs and RNA-dependent DNA methylation (RdDM). In addition, RNA silencing functions as an antiviral defense mechanism by targeting virus-derived double-stranded RNA. Plants encode multiple AGO proteins with specialized functions,(More)
Three water-soluble dicobalt(III) complexes, [Co(2)L(2)(micro-OH)(2)](ClO(4))(2).5H(2)O (1), [Co(2)L(2)(micro-OH)(2)](ClO(4))(2).CH(3)OH.H(2)O(2); [Co(2)L(2)(micro-OH)(2)](ClO(4))(2).4H(2)O(3) (L=1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N-acetate monoanion), were prepared to serve as nuclease mimics. The complexes were characterized by X-ray, IR and UV-vis spectroscopy as(More)
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