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Pollution of agricultural ecosystems is due to the excessive use of mineral fertilizers and mass discharge of livestock manure. Therefore, there is a need for disposing manure safely, for instance by transforming manure into valuable compost. Traditional composting is, however, time-consuming with considerable nutrient losses. Vermicomposting is an(More)
Organic farming has been regarded as an alternative solution for both agricultural sustainability and human health maintenance. Few researches have concentrated on the differences of biodiversity and eco-economic benefits between organic and conventional orchards. Organic management (OM) of orchards mainly includes taking advantage of natural enemies and(More)
Organic farming (OF) has been believed to be capable of curtailing some hazardous effects associated with chemical farming (CF). However, debates also exist on whether OF can feed a world with increasing human population. We hypothesized that some improvements on OF may produce adequate crops and reduce environmental pollutions from CF. This paper makes(More)
JEL classification: H7 F1 P2 Keywords: Growth spillovers Border effects Culture and economic integration China Local protectionism a b s t r a c t The aim of the paper is to explicitly disentangle the role of political and cultural boundaries as factors of fragmentation of economies within large countries. On the one hand, local pro-tectionism plays a(More)
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