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AKT activation requires phosphorylation of the activation loop (T308) by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) and the hydrophobic motif (S473) by the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2). We recently observed that phosphorylation of the AKT hydrophobic motif was dramatically elevated, rather than decreased, in mTOR knockout heart(More)
Germline mutations of the serine/threonine kinase LKB1 (also known as STK11) lead to Peutz–Jeghers syndrome (PJS) that is associated with increased incidence of malignant cancers. However, the tumor suppressor function of LKB1 has not been fully elucidated. We applied yeast two-hybrid screening and identified that a novel WD-repeat protein WDR6 was able to(More)
Subcellular compartmentalization has become an important theme in cell signaling such as spatial regulation of Ras by RasGRP1 and MEK/ERK by Sef. Here, we report spatial regulation of Raf kinase by RKTG (Raf kinase trapping to Golgi). RKTG is a seven-transmembrane protein localized at the Golgi apparatus. RKTG expression inhibits EGF-stimulated ERK and RSK(More)
Raf kinase trapping to Golgi (RKTG) is a newly characterized negative regulator of the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK signaling pathway via sequestrating Raf-1 to the Golgi apparatus. However, little is known about the physiological functions of RKTG in mitogenic pathway and carcinogenesis. Here, we describe a suppressive role of RKTG in skin carcinogenesis by analyzing(More)
Upon ligand binding, G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) impart the signal to heterotrimeric G proteins composed of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits, leading to dissociation of the G alpha subunit from the G betagamma subunit. While the G alpha subunit is imperative for downstream signaling, the G betagamma subunit, in its own right, mediates a variety of(More)
Alterations in cellular ubiquitin (Ub) homeostasis, known as Ub stress, feature and affect cellular responses in multiple conditions, yet the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here we report that autophagy receptor p62/sequestosome-1 interacts with E2 Ub conjugating enzymes, UBE2D2 and UBE2D3. Endogenous p62 undergoes E2-dependent(More)
Raf kinase trapping to Golgi (RKTG) is a potential tumor suppressor gene due to its negative roles in regulating Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway and GPCR (G protein-coupled receptor) Gβγ subunit signaling. Interestingly, RKTG-deficient mice are free of tumors, although they are prone to form skin cancer on carcinogen(More)
Raf kinase trapping to Golgi (RKTG) is a potential tumor suppressor gene due to its negative roles in regulating Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK (extracellular signal–regulated kinase) pathway and GPCR (G protein–coupled receptor) Gbg subunit signaling. Interestingly, RKTG-deficient mice are free of tumors, although they are prone to form skin cancer on carcinogen(More)
As a major diarrheagenic human pathogen, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) produce attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions, characterized by the formation of actin pedestals, on mammalian cells. A bacterial T3SS effector NleL from EHEC O157:H7 was recently shown to be a HECT-like E3 ligase in vitro, but its biological functions and host targets remain(More)