In semi-arid areas, multiple equilibrium states of an ecosystem (e.g., grassland and desert) are found to coexist, and the transition from grassland to desert is often abrupt at the boundary. A simple ecosystem model is developed to provide the biophysical explanation of this phenomenon. The model has three variables: living biomass, wilted biomass, and… (More)
A B S T R A C T A dynamical ecosystem model with three variables, living biomass, wilted biomass and available soil wetness, is developed to examine the vegetation–soil water interaction in semi-arid areas. The governing equations are based on the mass conservation law. The physical and biophysical processes are formulated with the parameters estimated from… (More)
This work was carried out to improve the probability of interception of frequency sweep and lower the system complexity of non-sweep mode of the electronic intelligence system for frequency agile radar signal. A low complexity receiver structure and its associated demodulation algorithm with high probability of intercept are also presented. Moreover, the… (More)
Pulses as short as 73-fs were generated from a Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb:YCa<sub>4</sub>O(BO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>3</sub> laser at 1043 nm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb:YCa<sub>4</sub>O(BO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>3</sub> laser.
(2005), Reply to comment by Dekker and Rietkerk on ''Multiple equilibrium states and the abrupt transitions in a dynamical system of soil water interacting with vegetation,'' Geophys. Res.  Dekker and Rietkerk  (hereinafter referred to as DR) raise some valid points regarding our paper ''Multiple equilibrium states and the abrupt transitions in a… (More)