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Circadian clocks generate endogenous rhythms in most organisms from cyanobacteria to humans and facilitate entrainment to environmental diurnal cycles, thus conferring a fitness advantage. Both transcriptional and posttranslational mechanisms are prominent in the basic network architecture of circadian systems. Posttranscriptional regulation, including mRNA(More)
Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) is a natural biophysical phenomenon that underlies an emerging technique to monitor protein-protein interactions in living cells in real time. Here, we present a series of technical advances to enhance the utility of the BRET assay in plants. A series of recombination cloning vectors was generated to(More)
Noise variance and hence signal to noise ratio (SNR) estimates are very important for the channel quality control in communication systems. Noting that in mobile communications the multipath time delays are slowly varying in time, in this paper we derive a subspace-based estimation method for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, which(More)
The role of heterotrimeric G proteins in pollen germination, tube growth, and signal transduction of extracellular calmodulin (CaM) was examined in lily pollen. Two kinds of antibodies raised against animal Gz a , one against an internal sequence and the other against its N terminus, cross-reacted with the same 41-kD protein from lily pollen plasma(More)
FRET is a well established method for cellular and subcellular imaging of protein interactions. However, FRET obligatorily necessitates fluorescence excitation with its concomitant problems of photobleaching, autofluorescence, phototoxicity, and undesirable stimulation of photobiological processes. A sister technique, bioluminescence resonance energy(More)
Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) between Renilla luciferase and yellow fluorescent protein has been adapted to serve as a real-time reporter on protein-protein interactions in live plant cells by using the Arabidopsis Constitutive photomorphogenesis 1 (COP1) protein as a model system. COP1 is a repressor of light signal transduction that(More)
The cellular concept was a major breakthrough in solving the problem of spectral congestion and user capacity, it offered very high capacity in a limited spectrum allocation without any major technological changes. The use of radio channels on the same carrier frequency to cover different areas which are separated from each other by sufficient distance so(More)
Circadian clocks provide temporal coordination by synchronizing internal biological processes with daily environmental cycles. To date, study of the plant circadian clock has emphasized Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) as a model, but it is important to determine the extent to which this model applies in other species. Accordingly, we have investigated(More)
Developmental mechanisms that enable perception of and response to the environment may enhance fitness. Ecophysiological traits typically vary depending on local conditions and contribute to resource acquisition and allocation, yet correlations may limit adaptive trait expression. Notably, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance vary diurnally, and the(More)