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— The presence of both multiple-access interference (MAI) and intersymbol interference (ISI) constitutes a major impediment to reliable communications in multipath code-division multiple-access (CDMA) channels. In this paper, an iterative receiver structure is proposed for decoding multiuser information data in a convolutionally coded asynchronous multipath(More)
We report here the purification of the third protein factor, Apaf-3, that participates in caspase-3 activation in vitro. Apaf-3 was identified as a member of the caspase family, caspase-9. Caspase-9 and Apaf-1 bind to each other via their respective NH2-terminal CED-3 homologous domains in the presence of cytochrome c and dATP, an event that leads to(More)
To meet the needs of wireless broadband access, the IEEE 802.16 protocol for wireless metropolitan networks (WirelessMAN) has been recently standardized. The medium access control (MAC) layer of the IEEE 802.16 has point-to-multipoint (PMP) mode and mesh mode. Previous works on the IEEE 802.16 have primarily focused on the PMP mode. In the mesh mode, all(More)
— The problem of blind demodulation of multiuser information symbols in a high-rate code-division multiple-access (CDMA) network in the presence of both multiple-access interference (MAI) and intersymbol interference (ISI) is considered. The dispersive CDMA channel is first cast into a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) signal model framework. By(More)
— The CSMA/CA protocols are designed under the assumption that all participant nodes would abide to the protocol rules. This is of particular importance in distributed protocols such as the IEEE 802.11 distributed coordinating function (DCF), in which nodes control their own backoff parameters. In this work, we propose a method to detect selfish misbehaving(More)
A cell-free system based on cytosols of normally growing cells is established that reproduces aspects of the apoptotic program in vitro. The apoptotic program is initiated by addition of dATP. Fractionation of cytosol yielded a 15 kDa protein that is required for in vitro apoptosis. The absorption spectrum and protein sequence revealed that this protein is(More)
We have identified and purified from HeLa cytosol a protein that induces DNA fragmentation in coincubated nuclei after it is activated by caspase-3. This protein, designated DNA Fragmentation Factor (DFF), is a heterodimer of 40 kDa and 45 kDa subunits. The amino acid sequence of the 45 kDa subunit, determined from its cDNA sequence, reveals it to be a(More)
We report here the identification of a novel protein, Smac, which promotes caspase activation in the cytochrome c/Apaf-1/caspase-9 pathway. Smac promotes caspase-9 activation by binding to inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, IAPs, and removing their inhibitory activity. Smac is normally a mitochondrial protein but is released into the cytosol when cells(More)
Smac mimetics induce apoptosis synergistically with TNF-alpha by triggering the formation of a caspase-8-activating complex containing receptor interacting protein kinase-1 (RIPK1). Caspase inhibitors block this form of apoptosis in many types of cells. However, in several other cell lines, caspase inhibitors switch the apoptotic response to necrosis. A(More)