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We provided evidence for the formation of a novel phospholipase C-mediated calcium signal arising from coactivation of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors. In the present study, robust fluorescence resonance energy transfer showed that these receptors exist in close proximity indicative of D1-D2 receptor heterooligomerization. The close proximity of these(More)
D(1) and D(2) dopamine receptors exist as heteromers in cells and brain tissue and are dynamically regulated and separated by agonist concentrations at the cell surface. We determined that these receptor pairs interact primarily through discrete amino acids in the cytoplasmic regions of each receptor, with no evidence of any D(1)-D(2) receptor transmembrane(More)
As a ubiquitous phenomenon in communication networks, the self-similar nature of network traffic has recently received great interests and been extensively studied. In this paper, assuming the buffering capability of the source node, through combining the traffic properties and channel characteristics, we analyze the queuing behaviors of self-similar(More)
We have demonstrated that D(5) and D(2) dopamine receptors exist as heteromers in cells, and determined these receptor interact through amino acids in the cytoplasmic regions of each receptor. Specifically involved in heteromer formation we identified in the carboxyl tail of the D(5) receptor three adjacent glutamic acid residues, and in intracellular loop(More)
G protein-coupled receptors occur as dimers within arrays of oligomers. We visualized ensembles of dopamine receptor oligomers in living cells and evaluated the contributions of receptor conformation to the dynamics of oligomer association and dissociation, using a strategy of trafficking a receptor to another cellular compartment. We incorporated a nuclear(More)
Although the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer has emerging physiological relevance and a postulated role in different neuropsychiatric disorders, such as drug addiction, depression, and schizophrenia, there is a need for pharmacological tools that selectively target such receptor complexes in order to analyze their biological and pathophysiological(More)
The M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase is an emerging target for antitumor therapy. In this letter, we describe the discovery of 2-((1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl)methyl)-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-ones as potent and selective PKM2 activators which were found to have a novel binding mode. The original lead identified from high throughput screening was optimized into(More)
The authors describe a novel drug strategy designed as a primary screen to discover either antagonist or agonist compounds targeting G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The incorporation of a nuclear localization sequence (NLS, a 5 amino acid substitution), in a location in helix 8 of the GPCR structure, resulted in ligand-independent receptor(More)