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The activation of macrophages through Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways leads to the production of a broad array of cytokines and mediators that coordinate the immune response. The inflammatory potential of this response can be reduced by compounds, such as prostaglandin E(2), that induce the production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Through(More)
Transcription factors of the Forkhead Box, class O (FOXO) family promote cell-cycle arrest and/or apoptosis in a variety of cell types. Mitogenic stimuli inactivate FOXO function by way of an evolutionarily conserved pathway involving the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream effector, Akt. Although PI3K activation is required(More)
We examined the major patterns of changes in gene expression in mouse splenic B cells in response to stimulation with 33 single ligands for 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h. We found that ligands known to directly induce or costimulate proliferation, namely, anti-IgM (anti-Ig), anti-CD40 (CD40L), LPS, and, to a lesser extent, IL-4 and CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG),(More)
Effective and stable knockdown of multiple gene targets by RNA interference is often necessary to overcome isoform redundancy, but it remains a technical challenge when working with intractable cell systems. We have developed a flexible platform using RNA polymerase II promoter-driven expression of microRNA-like short hairpin RNAs which permits robust(More)
To characterize how signaling by TLR ligands can be modulated by non-TLR ligands, murine RAW 264.7 cells were treated with LPS, IFN-gamma, 2-methyl-thio-ATP (2MA), PGE(2), and isoproterenol (ISO). Ligands were applied individually and in combination with LPS, for 1, 2, and 4 h, and transcriptional changes were measured using customized oligo arrays. We used(More)
Cellular responses to inputs that vary both temporally and spatially are determined by complex relationships between the components of cell signaling networks. Analysis of these relationships requires access to a wide range of experimental reagents and techniques, including the ability to express the protein components of the model cells in a variety of(More)
Joelle R. Zavzavadjian‡§, Sam Couture‡§, Wei Sun Park‡¶, James Whalen‡¶, Stephen Lyon‡ , Genie Lee‡§, Eileen Fung‡§, Qingli Mi‡§, Jamie Liu‡§, Estelle Wall‡§, Leah Santat‡§, Kavitha Dhandapani‡§, Christine Kivork‡§, Adrienne Driver‡§, Xiaocui Zhu‡§, Mi Sook Chang‡§, Baljinder Randhawa‡§, Elizabeth Gehrig‡¶, Heather Bryan‡¶, Mary Verghese‡¶, Andreia Maer‡ ,(More)
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