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To elucidate the location of motor entry points (MEPs) and intramuscular nerve endings of the hamstring muscles. We dissected 50 cadaveric lower extremities to identify the MEPs, where the nerve branch first pierced the muscle belly, and the proximal and distal limit points (PLPs and DLPs, respectively) of the terminal intramuscular nerve endings. These(More)
To determine the 3D location of the intramuscular motor nerve endings of the biceps brachii and brachialis, we identified from 56 fresh cadaveric arms the regions where the intramuscular branches were most densely located in relation to a reference line connecting the medial epicondyle of humerus and the coracoid process. For the biceps, these points were(More)
The aim of this study was to document the anatomical landmarks of the motor entry point (MEP) and the intramuscular motor point (IMP) of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle for effective botulinum toxin injections. Thirty-five specimens from 20 adults bodies donated to science were investigated. The reference points were the mastoid process and the most(More)
This study examined the anatomic location of the motor entry point (MEP) and branching point at the proximal and distal points of the tendon of the peroneal muscle by visual observation. Forty-three fresh legs of 25 adult bodies which had been donated to science were investigated in this study. The mean length of the reference line between the most proximal(More)
INTRODUCTION The aim of this study was to determine the anatomical location of the motor points of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) and brevis (FHB) muscles for an effective motor point block. METHODS Twenty cadavers were used for this study. For the FHL, we identified the line between the medial and lateral epicondyle of the femur and the line joining(More)
To develop a clinically relevant anterior cervical approach (ACA) to the C2-3 level. Frequently encountered nerves [hypoglossal (HyN), internal (ISLN) and external superior laryngeal nerves (ESLN)] and vessels [lingual (LiA), superior laryngeal (SLA) and superior thyroid arteries (STA)] in the field of high ACA and the anatomic spatial markers(More)
The gracilis muscle is widely used in reconstructive surgery, either as a pedicled flap or as a free microsurgical flap. The aim of this study was to demonstrate in detail the arterial anatomy of the gracilis muscle, particularly its intramuscular artery distribution, by using a method involving red latex injection and glycerin transparency, which makes(More)
INTRODUCTION Intramuscular innervation of the human diaphragm has not been well described. The goal of this study was to elucidate the detailed intramuscular distribution of the phrenic nerve in the human diaphragm. METHODS Fifteen human diaphragms were visualized using modified Sihler staining, and the detailed intramuscular phrenic nerve distribution(More)
The aim of this study was to elucidate the anatomical location of the motor entry point (MEP) and intramuscular motor point (IMP) of the tibialis posterior muscle for effective motor point block. Thirty-six fresh specimens from 20 adult Korean cadavers (11 males and 9 females) were investigated. The reference line between the most proximal-medial articular(More)
The aim of this study was to determine the motor entry points (MEPs) and the precise intramuscular nerve distribution of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and to provide accurate injection regions for botulinum toxin. This study was performed on 46 fresh cadaveric arms with exposed intramuscular innervation of the FDS. For each main motor branch of(More)