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Electron microscopy and fiber diffraction studies of reconstituted F-actin-tropomyosin filaments reveal the azimuthal position of end-to-end linked tropomyosin molecules on the surface of actin. However, the longitudinal z-position of tropomyosin along F-actin is still uncertain. Without this information, atomic models of F-actin-tropomyosin filaments, free(More)
Wrapped superhelically around actin filaments, the coiled-coil alpha-helices of tropomyosin regulate muscle contraction by cooperatively blocking or exposing myosin-binding sites on actin. In non-muscle cells, tropomyosin additionally controls access of actin-binding proteins involved in cytoskeletal actin filament maintenance and remodeling. Tropomyosin's(More)
The structural mechanics of tropomyosin are essential determinants of its affinity and positioning on F-actin. Thus, tissue-specific differences among tropomyosin isoforms may influence both access of actin-binding proteins along the actin filaments and the cooperativity of actin-myosin interactions. Here, 40 nm long smooth and striated muscle tropomyosin(More)
The inherent flexibility of rod-like tropomyosin coiled-coils is a significant factor that constrains tropomyosin's complex positional dynamics on actin filaments. Flexibility of elongated straight molecules typically is assessed by persistence length, a measure of lengthwise thermal bending fluctuations. However, if a molecule's equilibrium conformation is(More)
Complementarity between the tropomyosin supercoil and the helical contour of actin-filaments is required for the binding interaction of actin and tropomyosin (Li et al., 2010). Clusters of small alanine residues in place of canonical leucines along coiled-coil tropomyosin may be responsible for pre-shaping tropomyosin and promoting conformational(More)
Point mutations targeting muscle thin filament proteins are the cause of a number of cardiomyopathies. In many cases, biological effects of the mutations are well-documented, whereas their structural and mechanical impact on filament assembly and regulatory function is lacking. In order to elucidate molecular defects leading to cardiac dysfunction, we have(More)
The regulation of striated muscle contraction involves cooperative interactions between actin filaments, myosin-S1 (S1), tropomyosin (Tm), troponin (Tn), and calcium. These interactions are modeled by treating overlapping tropomyosins as a continuous flexible chain (CFC), weakly confined by electrostatic interactions with actin. The CFC is displaced locally(More)
Our thesis is that thin filament function can only be fully understood and muscle regulation then elucidated if atomic structures of the thin filament are available to reveal the positions of tropomyosin on actin in all physiological states. After all, it is tropomyosin influenced by troponin that regulates myosin-crossbridge cycling on actin and therefore(More)
A large number of tropomyosin (Tm) isoforms function as gatekeepers of the actin filament, controlling the spatiotemporal access of actin-binding proteins to specialized actin networks. Residues ∼40-80 vary significantly among Tm isoforms, but the impact of sequence variation on Tm structure and interactions with actin is poorly understood, because(More)
To be effective as a gatekeeper regulating the access of binding proteins to the actin filament, adjacent tropomyosin molecules associate head-to-tail to form a continuous super-helical cable running along the filament surface. Chimeric head-to-tail structures have been solved by NMR and X-ray crystallography for N- and C-terminal segments of smooth and(More)