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Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), a mitochondrial oxidoreductase, is released into the cytoplasm to induce cell death in response to apoptotic signals. However, the mechanisms underlying this process have not been resolved. We report that inactivation of the Caenorhabditis elegans AIF homolog wah-1 by RNA interference delayed the normal progression of(More)
During apoptosis, dying cells are quickly internalized by neighboring cells or phagocytes, and are enclosed in phagosomes that undergo a maturation process to generate the phagoslysosome, in which cell corpses are eventually degraded. It is not well understood how apoptotic cell degradation is regulated. Here we report the identification and(More)
During apoptosis, phosphatidylserine, which is normally restricted to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, is exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells and has been suggested to act as an "eat-me" signal to trigger phagocytosis. It is unclear how phagocytes recognize phosphatidylserine. Recently, a putative phosphatidylserine receptor (PSR) was(More)
Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells requires recognition of cell corpses followed by internalization and enclosure within plasma membrane-derived phagosomes. Phagosomes undergo maturation to generate phagolysosomes in which cell corpses are degraded; however, regulation of the maturation process is poorly understood. Here, we identified Rab GTPase 14, which(More)
BACKGROUND During programmed cell death, apoptotic cells are rapidly removed by phagocytes. How dying cells are recognized remains poorly understood. RESULTS Here we identify a secreted lipid transfer/LPS-binding family protein, NRF-5, which is required for efficient clearance of cell corpses. We observed that phosphatidylserine (PS), which is(More)
During programmed cell death, apoptotic cells are recognized and rapidly engulfed by phagocytes. Although a number of genes have been identified that promote cell corpse engulfment, it is not well understood how phagocytosis of apoptotic cells is negatively regulated. Here we have identified Caenorhabditis elegans myotubularin MTM-1 as a negative regulator(More)
The cellular recycling process of autophagy has been extensively characterized with standard assays in yeast and mammalian cell lines. In multicellular organisms, numerous external and internal factors differentially affect autophagy activity in specific cell types throughout the stages of organismal ontogeny, adding complexity to the analysis of autophagy(More)
Apoptotic cell degradation is a fundamental process for organism development, and impaired clearance causes inflammatory or autoimmune disease. Although autophagy genes were reported to be essential for exposing the engulfment signal on apoptotic cells, their roles in phagocytes for apoptotic cell removal are not well understood. In this paper, we develop(More)
Phagocytosis requires phosphoinositides (PIs) as both signaling molecules and localization cues. How PIs coordinate to control phagosomal sealing and the accompanying switch of organelle identity is unclear. In this study, we followed dynamic changes in PIs during apoptotic cell clearance in Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that(More)