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Establishment of epithelial polarity requires the reorganization of the microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton from a radial array into a network positioned along the apicobasal axis of the cell. Little is known about the mechanisms that spatially guide the remodeling of MTs during epithelial polarization. Septins are filamentous guanine triphosphatases (GTPases)(More)
Axon branching is fundamental to the development of the peripheral and central nervous system. Branches that sprout from the axon shaft are termed collateral or interstitial branches. Collateral branching of axons requires the formation of filopodia from actin microfilaments (F-actin) and their engorgement with microtubules (MTs) that splay from the axon(More)
The septins are conserved, GTP-binding proteins important for cytokinesis, membrane compartmentalization, and exocytosis. However, it is unknown how septins are arranged within higher-order structures in cells. To determine the organization of septins in live cells, we developed a polarized fluorescence microscopy system to monitor the orientation of GFP(More)
Septin 9 (SEPT9) interacts with microtubules (MTs) and is mutated in hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy (HNA), an autosomal-dominant neuropathy. The mechanism of SEPT9 interaction with MTs and the molecular basis of HNA are unknown. Here, we show that the N-terminal domain of SEPT9 contains the novel repeat motifs K/R-x-x-E/D and R/K-R-x-E, which bind and(More)
Septins are GTP-binding proteins that form cytoskeleton-like filaments, which are essential for many functions in eukaryotic organisms. Small molecule compounds that disrupt septin filament assembly are valuable tools for dissecting septin functions with high temporal control. To date, forchlorfenuron (FCF) is the only compound known to affect septin(More)
Intracellular transport involves the regulation of microtubule motor interactions with cargo, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Septins are membrane- and microtubule-binding proteins that assemble into filamentous, scaffold-like structures. Septins are implicated in microtubule-dependent transport, but their roles are unknown. Here we(More)
Foamy virus (FV) establishes persistent infection in the host without causing apparent disease. Besides the transactivator Tas protein, another auxiliary protein—Bet—has been reported in prototype foamy virus, equine foamy virus, and feline foamy virus. Here, we found the putative bbet gene in clone C74 from a cDNA library of bovine foamy virus strain 3026(More)
Bioleaching of Cu and Fe in low-grade chalcopyrite using Penicillium janthinellum strian GXCR was studied. As a result, shaking bioleaching was more efficient than submerged bioleaching; Cu bioleaching was much better than Fe bioleaching; under conditions of optimum carbon source (10% sucrose, W/V), optimum nitrogen source (1.5% NaNO3, W/V), shaking(More)
To solve optimization scheduling problems and improve efficiency of tobacco enterprises, the paper first establishes mathematical modeling of optimization scheduling on tobacco enterprise, through introducing idea of operation sets to scheduling algorithm, increases the possibility of scheduling algorithm. According to making and packing plan, the paper(More)
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