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Nuclear export of unspliced and singly spliced viral mRNA is a critical step in the HIV life cycle. The structural basis by which the virus selects its own mRNA among more abundant host cellular RNAs for export has been a mystery for more than 25 years. Here, we describe an unusual topological structure that the virus uses to recognize its own mRNA. The(More)
Transfer RNA (tRNA) methylation is necessary for the proper biological function of tRNA. The N(1) methylation of guanine at Position 9 (m(1)G9) of tRNA, which is widely identified in eukaryotes and archaea, was found to be catalyzed by the Trm10 family of methyltransferases (MTases). Here, we report the first crystal structures of the tRNA MTase spTrm10(More)
We have recently found that DNA packaged in phage λ undergoes a disordering transition triggered by temperature, which results in increased genome mobility. This solid-to-fluid like DNA transition markedly increases the number of infectious λ particles facilitating infection. However, the structural transition strongly depends on temperature and ionic(More)
Riboswitches are a newly discovered large family of structured functional RNA elements that specifically bind small molecule targets out of a myriad of cellular metabolites to modulate gene expression. Structural studies of ligand-bound riboswitches by X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy have provided insights into(More)
Interleukin (IL)-18 is a proinflammatory cytokine that belongs to the IL-1 family and plays an important role in inflammation. The uncontrolled release of this cytokine is associated with severe chronic inflammatory disease. IL-18 forms a signalling complex with the IL-18 receptor α (Rα) and β (Rβ) chains at the plasma membrane, which induces multiple(More)
Uch37 is a de-ubiquitinating enzyme that is activated by Rpn13 and involved in the proteasomal degradation of proteins. The full-length Uch37 was shown to exhibit low iso-peptidase activity and is thought to be auto-inhibited. Structural comparisons revealed that within a homo-dimer of Uch37, each of the catalytic domains was blocking the other’s ubiquitin(More)
Releasing the packaged viral DNA into the host cell is an essential process to initiate viral infection. In many double-stranded DNA bacterial viruses and herpesviruses, the tightly packaged genome is hexagonally ordered and stressed in the protein shell, called the capsid. DNA condensed in this state inside viral capsids has been shown to be trapped in a(More)
Riboswitches are structural RNA elements that are generally located in the 5' untranslated region of messenger RNA. During regulation of gene expression, ligand binding to the aptamer domain of a riboswitch triggers a signal to the downstream expression platform. A complete understanding of the structural basis of this mechanism requires the ability to(More)
Combining linear Zn porphyrin trimers with orthogonally derivatized porphyrin dimers leads rapidly and spontaneously to the formation of monodisperse, torsionally constrained boxes comprising six components and a total of 16 metalloporphyrins. In situ X-ray scattering measurements confirm the formation of monodisperse assemblies of precisely the size(More)
Allostery enables tight regulation of protein function in the cellular environment. Although existing models of allostery are firmly rooted in the current structure-function paradigm, the mechanistic basis for allostery in the absence of structural change remains unclear. In this study, we show that a typical globular protein is able to undergo significant(More)