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How the brain selects goals for movements remains unknown. The system designed to move the eyes rapidly, the saccadic system, may play a role. Here we ask how sensory signals within a saccade area are influenced by selecting and preparing a saccade. Trained monkeys made or withheld saccades, based on a color cue, to targets varying in luminance contrast. We(More)
A feature of neurons in the mammalian superior colliclus (SC) is the robust discharge of action potentials preceding the onset of rapid eye movements called saccades. The burst, which commands ocular motoneurons, is often preceded by persistent, low-level activity, likely reflecting neuronal processes such as target selection, saccade selection and(More)
Orexins, also termed hypocretins, consist of two neuropeptide agonists (orexin A and B) interacting with two known G-protein coupled receptors (OX(1)R and OX(2)R). In addition to other biological functions, the orexin-2 receptor is thought to be an important modulator of sleep and wakefulness. Herein we describe a series of novel, selective OX(2)R(More)
The shape of grass leaves possesses great value in both agronomy and developmental biology research. Leaf rolling is one of the important traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.) breeding. MYB transcription factors are one of the largest gene families and have important roles in plant development, metabolism and stress responses. However, little is known about(More)
In addition to its role in saccade generation, the superior colliculus (SC) is involved in target selection, saccade selection, and shifting the focus of spatial attention. Here, we investigated the influence of saccade selection on sensory interactions within single response fields (RFs) of SC neurons. One or two differently shaped stimuli were presented(More)
Astronomers and physicists noticed centuries ago that visual spatial resolution is higher for dark than light stimuli, but the neuronal mechanisms for this perceptual asymmetry remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that the asymmetry is caused by a neuronal nonlinearity in the early visual pathway. We show that neurons driven by darks (OFF neurons) increase(More)
The natural incidence of fatty liver in ruminants is significantly higher than in monogastric animals. Fatty liver is associated with sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c). The aim of this study was to investigate the regulatory network effects of SREBP-1c on the lipid metabolic genes involved in fatty acid uptake, activation, oxidation,(More)
By performing a whole genome screen in an F2 intercross of two strains of mice (A/J and C57BL/6J), which differ markedly in their behavioral response to a brightly lit open field (O-F), we have mapped several quantitative trait loci (QTL) for this complex behavioral phenotype. QTL on chromosomes 1 and 10 were identified that affect both initial ambulation(More)
Oxidative stress plays an important role in Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Salidroside, a phenylpropanoid glycoside isolated from Rhodiola rosea L., has potent antioxidant properties. In the present study, we investigated the protective activity of salidroside against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced apoptosis in PC12(More)