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Much is known about the composition and function of the postsynaptic density (PSD), but less is known about its molecular organization. We use EM tomography to delineate the organization of PSDs at glutamatergic synapses in rat hippocampal cultures. The core of the PSD is dominated by vertically oriented filaments, and ImmunoGold labeling shows that PSD-95(More)
Postsynaptic densities (PSDs) contain proteins that regulate synaptic transmission. We determined the positions of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and PSD-95 within the three-dimensional structure of isolated PSDs using immunogold labeling, rotary shadowing, and electron microscopic tomography. The results show that all PSDs contain(More)
The total molecular mass of individual postsynaptic densities (PSDs) isolated from rat forebrain was measured by scanning transmission EM. PSDs had a mean diameter of 360 nm and molecular mass of 1.10 +/- 0.36 GDa. Because the mass represents the sum of the molecular masses of all of the molecules comprising a PSD, it becomes possible to derive the number(More)
PSD-95, a membrane-associated guanylate kinase, is the major scaffolding protein in the excitatory postsynaptic density (PSD) and a potent regulator of synaptic strength. Here we show that PSD-95 is in an extended configuration and positioned into regular arrays of vertical filaments that contact both glutamate receptors and orthogonal horizontal elements(More)
We compared the distribution of three scaffolding proteins, all belonging to a family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases, thought to have key roles in the organization of the postsynaptic density (PSD). Isolated PSDs readily adhered to treated glass coverslips where they were labeled with immunogold and rotary shadowed for analysis by EM. The(More)
The recent studies indicated that the epithelial cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin is a well-recognized molecule that is important in cell adhesion. To further investigate the molecular basis of this notion, we used small-interfering RNA to inhibit E-cadherin function and found that loss of E-cadherin promoted Colorectal cancer cell growth, invasion and(More)
There is large area of saline abandoned and low-yielding land distributed in coastal zone in the world. Soil salinity which inhibits plant growth and decreases crop yield is a serious and chronic problem for agricultural production. Improving plant salt tolerance is a feasible way to solve this problem. Plant physiological and biochemical responses under(More)
Tumorigenesis is a complex dynamic biological process that includes multiple steps of genetic and epigenetic alterations, aberrant expression of noncoding RNA, and changes in the expression profiles of coding genes. We call the collection of those perturbations in genome space the "cancer initiatome." Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are pervasively(More)
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are pervasively transcribed in the genome. They have important regulatory functions in chromatin remodeling and gene expression. Dysregulated lncRNAs have been studied in cancers, but their role in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains largely unknown. We have conducted lncRNA expression screening and a genome-wide(More)