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Much is known about the composition and function of the postsynaptic density (PSD), but less is known about its molecular organization. We use EM tomography to delineate the organization of PSDs at glutamatergic synapses in rat hippocampal cultures. The core of the PSD is dominated by vertically oriented filaments, and ImmunoGold labeling shows that PSD-95(More)
Postsynaptic densities (PSDs) contain proteins that regulate synaptic transmission. We determined the positions of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and PSD-95 within the three-dimensional structure of isolated PSDs using immunogold labeling, rotary shadowing, and electron microscopic tomography. The results show that all PSDs contain(More)
The total molecular mass of individual postsynaptic densities (PSDs) isolated from rat forebrain was measured by scanning transmission EM. PSDs had a mean diameter of 360 nm and molecular mass of 1.10 +/- 0.36 GDa. Because the mass represents the sum of the molecular masses of all of the molecules comprising a PSD, it becomes possible to derive the number(More)
We compared the distribution of three scaffolding proteins, all belonging to a family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases, thought to have key roles in the organization of the postsynaptic density (PSD). Isolated PSDs readily adhered to treated glass coverslips where they were labeled with immunogold and rotary shadowed for analysis by EM. The(More)
PSD-95, a membrane-associated guanylate kinase, is the major scaffolding protein in the excitatory postsynaptic density (PSD) and a potent regulator of synaptic strength. Here we show that PSD-95 is in an extended configuration and positioned into regular arrays of vertical filaments that contact both glutamate receptors and orthogonal horizontal elements(More)
BACKGROUND Oral cancer survival rates increase significantly when it is detected and treated early. Unfortunately, clinicians now lack tests which easily and reliably distinguish pre-malignant oral lesions from those already transitioned to malignancy. A test for proteins, ones found in non-invasively-collected whole saliva and whose abundances distinguish(More)
The mechanisms controlling synapse growth and maintenance are of critical importance for learning and memory. The MAGUK family of synaptic scaffolding proteins is abundantly expressed at glutamatergic central synapses, but their importance in controlling the synaptic content of glutamate receptors is poorly understood. Here, we use a chained RNAi-mediated(More)
Triple-negative breast carcinomas (TNBC) are characterized by particularly poor outcomes, and there are no established markers significantly associated with prognosis. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are subclass of noncoding RNAs that have been recently shown to play critical roles in cancer biology. However, little is known about their mechanistic role in(More)
The postsynaptic density (PSD)-95 family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs) are major scaffolding proteins at the PSD in glutamatergic excitatory synapses, where they maintain and modulate synaptic strength. How MAGUKs underlie synaptic strength at the molecular level is still not well understood. Here, we explore the structural and(More)
There is large area of saline abandoned and low-yielding land distributed in coastal zone in the world. Soil salinity which inhibits plant growth and decreases crop yield is a serious and chronic problem for agricultural production. Improving plant salt tolerance is a feasible way to solve this problem. Plant physiological and biochemical responses under(More)