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We validate Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) sea surface salinity (SSS) retrieved during August 2010 from the European Space Agency SMOS processing. Biases appear close to land and ice and between ascending and descending orbits; they are linked to image reconstruction issues and instrument calibration and remain under study. We validate the SMOS SSS(More)
The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission carries the Microwave Imaging Radiometer using Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) instrument. It is the first time that an interferometric radiometer is in orbit. The objective of this paper is to assess the quality of the brightness temperatures (TBs) derived from this novel instrument, as processed with the SMOS(More)
SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity), launched in November 2, 2009 is the first satellite mission addressing the salinity measurement from space through the use of MIRAS (Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis), a new two-dimensional interferometer designed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and operating at Lband. This paper presents a(More)
Chemoresistance is one of the most leading causes for tumor progression and recurrence of bladder cancer. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a key role in the chemosensitivity of cancer cells. In the present study, emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone) was applied as a ROS generator in combination with cisplatin in T24 and J82 human bladder(More)
BACKGROUND Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates tumorigenesis, but its clinical significance in gallbladder cancer (GBC) remains unclear. This study investigated its clinical and prognostic significance in GBC patients, as well as its association with the anti-apoptotic protein, myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (MCL1) protein. METHODS FXR and MCL1(More)
The ESA/SMOS (European Space Agency/Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) satellite mission provides new measurements of Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) using L-band radiometry. At that frequency, the skin depth is 1 centimeter while most in situ measurements used for the calibration and validation of SMOS measurements are taken at 5 m depth or deeper. A preliminary(More)