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Neuropeptide S (NPS) is the endogenous ligand for GPR154, now referred to as neuropeptide S receptor (NPSR). Physiologically, NPS has been characterized as a modulator of arousal and has been shown to produce anxiolytic-like effects in rodents. Neuroanatomical analysis in the rat revealed that the NPS precursor mRNA is strongly expressed in the brainstem in(More)
Neuropeptide S (NPS) has been associated with a number of complex brain functions, including anxiety-like behaviors, arousal, sleep-wakefulness regulation, drug-seeking behaviors, and learning and memory. In order to better understand how NPS influences these functions in a neuronal network context, it is critical to identify transmitter systems that(More)
microRNA-134 (miR-134) has been reported to be a brain-specific miRNA and is differently expressed in brain tissues subjected to ischemic injury. However, the underlying mechanism of miR-134 in regulating cerebral ischemic injury remains poorly understood. The current study was designed to delineate the molecular basis of miR-134 in regulating cerebral(More)
The hippocampus is vulnerable to damage under conditions of ischemia and hypoxia, causing multiple mental illnesses. cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) plays a pivotal role in preventing the apoptosis of neurons and many other cells. Here, we found that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and CREB are oppositely regulated in mouse primary(More)
Increased intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) is a key pathological mechanism involved in secondary neuronal injury and cell death due to diffuse axonal injury (DAI). To date, this increased [Ca(2+)](i) is believed to be mainly caused by dysfunction of voltage-gated sodium channels and mechanoporation of the plasma membrane. Store-operated calcium entry(More)
A recently discovered neurotransmitter system, consisting of neuropeptide S (NPS), NPS receptor, and NPS-expressing neurons in the brain stem, has received considerable interest due to its modulating influence on arousal, anxiety and stress responsiveness. Comparatively little is known about the properties of NPS-expressing neurons. Therefore in the present(More)
BACKGROUND mTOR kinase forms the mTORC1 complex by associating with raptor and other proteins and affects a number of key cell functions. mTORC1 activates p70S6kinase 1 (p70S6K1) and inhibits 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). In turn, p70S6K1 phosphorylates a S6 protein of the 40S ribosomal subunit (S6rp) and 4E-BP1, with the latter negatively regulating(More)
PURPOSE Glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1) belongs to the oxidoreductase family and is a component of the endogenous antioxidant defense system. However, its physiological function remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated whether and how Grx1 overexpression protects the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells against H2O2-induced apoptosis. METHODS Human(More)
The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is notoriously difficult to study in the wild, but its interesting reproductive ecology makes the effort worthwhile. Perhaps more than most species, the panda is energy-limited, which alters the cost/benefit analysis of its reproductive ecology. Using global positioning system/very high frequency radiocollars to(More)