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We examined the modulation of persistent inward currents (PICs) by serotonin (5-HT) in spinal motoneurons of normal and chronic spinal rats. PICs are composed of both a TTX-sensitive persistent sodium current (Na PIC) and a nimodipine-sensitive persistent calcium current (Ca PIC), and we focused on quantifying the Na PIC (and its action on the total PIC),(More)
Over the months following sacral spinal cord transection in adult rats, a pronounced spasticity syndrome emerges in the affected tail musculature, where long-lasting muscle spasms can be evoked by low-threshold afferent stimulation (termed long-lasting reflex). To develop an in vitro preparation to examine the neuronal mechanisms underlying spasticity, we(More)
Months after sacral spinal transection in rats (chronic spinal rats), motoneurons below the injury exhibit large, low-threshold persistent inward currents (PICs), composed of persistent sodium currents (Na PICs) and persistent calcium currents (Ca PICs). Here, we studied whether motoneurons of normal adult rats also exhibited Na and Ca PICs when the spinal(More)
In the months after spinal cord injury, motoneurons develop large voltage-dependent persistent inward currents (PICs) that cause sustained reflexes and associated muscle spasms. These muscle spasms are triggered by any excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) that is long enough to activate the PICs, which take > 100 ms to activate. The PICs are composed of(More)
The spinal cord and spinal motoneurons are densely innervated by terminals of serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) neurons arising mostly from the brain stem, but also from intrinsic spinal neurons. Even after long-term spinal transection (chronic spinal), significant amounts (10%) of 5-HT and NE (monoamines) remain caudal to the injury. To determine(More)
Low voltage-activated persistent inward calcium currents (Ca PICs) occur in rat motoneurons and are mediated by Cav1.3 L-type calcium channels (L-Ca current). The objectives of this paper were to determine whether this L-Ca current activates a sustained calcium-activated potassium current (SK current) and examine how such SK currents change with spinal(More)
BACKGROUND Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a new technology for noninvasively stimulating the brain. Several studies have suggested that daily stimulation of the left prefrontal cortex with TMS for 2 weeks has probable antidepressant effects. We conducted a parallel-design, double-masked, sham-controlled study to address whether 2 weeks of daily(More)
In this paper we propose the first method known to the authors that successfully differentiates spontaneous from posed facial expressions using a realistic training corpus. We propose a new spatiotemporal local texture descriptor (CLBP-TOP) that outperforms other descriptors. We demonstrate that our temporal interpolation and visual/near-infrared fusion(More)
— Micro-expressions are short, involuntary facial expressions which reveal hidden emotions. Micro-expressions are important for understanding humans' deceitful behavior. Psychologists have been studying them since the 1960's. Currently the attention is elevated in both academic fields and in media. However, while general facial expression recognition (FER)(More)
Heart rate is an important indicator of people's physiological state. Recently, several papers reported methods to measure heart rate remotely from face videos. Those methods work well on stationary subjects under well controlled conditions, but their performance significantly degrades if the videos are recorded under more challenging conditions,(More)