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hina has experienced unprecedented economic growth over the past two decades, accompanied by the development of large-scale industries and services. In the course of this expansion, medium-sized cities and small towns have sprung up around the larger cities, forming city clusters, often with similar or interdependent economies. The development of city(More)
China is taking major steps to improve Beijing's air quality for the 2008 Olympic Games. However, concentrations of fine particulate matter and ozone in Beijing often exceed healthful levels in the summertime. Based on the US EPA's Models-3/CMAQ model simulation over the Beijing region, we estimate that about 34% of PM 2.5 on average and 35–60% of ozone(More)
BACKGROUND Epidemiologic evidence for a causative association between black carbon (BC) and health outcomes is limited. OBJECTIVES We estimated associations and exposure-response relationships between acute respiratory inflammation in schoolchildren and concentrations of BC and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) in ambient(More)
Light intensity affects photosynthetic carbon (C) fixation and the supply of carbon to roots. To evaluate interactions between carbon supply and phosphorus (P) supply, effects of light intensity on sucrose accumulation, root growth, cluster root formation, carboxylate exudation, and P uptake capacity were studied in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) grown(More)
In this paper, we focus on the problem of ad dissemination in the cluster based vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). Our goal is to stimulate vehicles to disseminate the ad packets cooperatively in a stable cluster based VANET, meanwhile a stable clustering algorithm for N-hop clustering is proposed. To stimulate the vehicles to cooperate, the VANETs are(More)
Positive below-ground interactions (facilitation) should be more pronounced when resources limit crop growth, according to the stress-gradient hypothesis. Our aim was to test this hypothesis for intercropped durum wheat and faba bean along a P-fertilizer gradient. A field experiment was conducted in a long-term P-fertilizer trial with three rates of(More)
Characteristics of heave compensation systems used on a marine drilling platform or drill-ship are analyzed. An active heave compensation system with two lift cylinders is proposed by COMRA (China Ocean Mineral Resources & Association), which will be used in 1000-m depth ocean poly-metallic nodule pilot mining system. A corresponding virtual prototype of(More)
The 4H-SiC trench MOSFETs based on multilayer epitaxial structures (N+/P-/N-) were demonstrated in this paper. N+/P-/N- multiple epitaxial layers were continuously grown on 3-inch N+ type 4H-SiC substrate by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Trench gate was fabricated by using a controlled ICP etch process. The ion implantation and following high temperature(More)
A novel empirical large signal direct current (DC) I-V model is presented considering the high saturation voltage, high pinch-off voltage, and wide operational range of drain voltage for 4H-SiC MESFETs. A comparison of the presented model with Statz, Materka, Curtice-Cubic, and recently reported 4H-SiC MESFET large signal I-V models is made through the(More)