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Mammalian cells fuel their growth and proliferation through the catabolism of two main substrates: glucose and glutamine. Most of the remaining metabolites taken up by proliferating cells are not catabolized, but instead are used as building blocks during anabolic macromolecular synthesis. Investigations of phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream(More)
Polycomb genes encode critical regulators of both normal stem cells and cancer stem cells. A gene signature that includes Polycomb genes and additional genes coregulated with Polycomb genes was recently identified. The expression of this signature has been reported to identify tumors with the cancer stem cell phenotypes of aggressive growth, metastasis, and(More)
Initial studies of the mammalian hSAGA transcriptional coactivator complex identified the acetyltransferase hGCN5/PCAF as the only known enzymatic subunit. Recently we demonstrated that the ubiquitin hydrolase USP22 comprises a second enzymatic subunit of hSAGA, and that is required for activator-driven transcription. USP22 is expressed with polycomb(More)
The family of myc proto-oncogenes encodes transcription factors (c-, N-, and L-Myc) that regulate cell growth and proliferation and are involved in the etiology of diverse cancers. Myc proteins are thought to function by binding and regulating specific target genes. Here we report that Myc proteins are required for the widespread maintenance of active(More)
Fungi in gorgonians are now known to cause gorgonian diseases, but little attention has been paid to the nature of fungal communities associated with gorgonians. The diversity of culturable fungi associated with six species of healthy South China Sea gorgonians were investigated using a culture-dependent method followed by analysis of fungal internal(More)
Mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor-beta gene (TR beta) cause resistance to thyroid hormone. How the action of mutant thyroid hormone nuclear receptors (TRs) is regulated in vivo is not clear. We examined the effect of a TR coactivator, steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1), on target-tissue responsiveness by using a mouse model of resistance to(More)
To investigate the effect of X-ray repair cross complementing 1 (XRCC1) genetic polymorphisms on esophageal cancer risk, we determined XRCC1 polymorphisms at codon 194 (Arg --> Trp) and codon 399 (Arg --> Gln) in 135 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and 152 normal controls from hospitals. Although polymorphism at codon 194 was not(More)
The c-myc oncogene is among the most commonly overexpressed genes in human cancer. c-myc encodes a basic helix-loop-helix/leucine zipper (bHLH/LZ) transcription factor (c-MYC) that activates a cascade of downstream targets that ultimately mediate cellular transformation. Although a large number of genes are regulated by c-MYC, only a few have been(More)
AIM To investigate the microsatellite instability (MSI) in cancer and pre-cancerous lesions of the stomach and its mechanisms underlying the development of gastric cancer. METHODS Thirty-six gastric cancer samples were obtained from patients undergoing surgery. Forty-one gastric mucosa samples with dysplasia and 51 with intestinal metaplasia (IM) were(More)