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Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Currently, there is no effective medical treatment available to improve functional outcomes in patients with ICH due to its unknown mechanisms of damage. Increasing evidence has shown that the metabolic products of erythrocytes are the key contributor of(More)
Blood in the vessels bleeds into the brain parenchyma resulting in the intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) [1]. The direct mass effect of the rapidly formed hematoma causes the brain damage , which leads to neurologic deficit. Thus, clearing the he-matoma may be beneficial to the patient with ICH. However, the Surgical Trial in Intracerebral Hemorrhage (STICH)(More)
Recent reports have shown that preconditioning with the TLR3 ligand polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, it is unclear whether poly(I:C) treatment after cerebral I/R injury is also effective. We used mouse/rat middle cerebral artery occlusion and cell oxygen-glucose deprivation(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that mediate inflammatory responses play an important role in epilepsy; however, whether TLR1 is also involved in epileptogenesis remains unclear. Thus, in this study, we investigated the extent and pattern of TLR1 expression in epileptic tissues. One-hundred and thirty-two mice were intra-cerebroventricularly injected with PBS or(More)
OBJECTIVE Inflammatory injury plays a critical role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced secondary brain injury. However, the upstream events that initiate inflammatory responses following ICH remain elusive. Our previous studies suggested that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) may be the upstream signal that triggers inflammatory injury in ICH. In addition,(More)
Microglia/macrophages are the major immune cells involved in the defence against brain damage. Their morphology and functional changes are correlated with the release of danger signals induced by stroke. These cells are normally responsible for clearing away dead neural cells and restoring neuronal functions. However, when excessively activated by the(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. The endogenous ligands released from ischemic neurons activate the TLR signaling pathway, resulting in the production of a large number of inflammatory cytokines, thereby causing secondary inflammation damage following cerebral(More)
OBJECTIVE Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is a cytokine that is an important modulator of immune responses. However, its roles in epilepsy are not completely clear. Here, we investigated the expression and distribution of IL-21 in a kainic acid (KA)-induced acute seizure mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS Mice (n = 146) were randomly divided into an age-matched(More)
Iron plays a detrimental role in the intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced brain damage, while hepcidin is the most important iron-regulated hormone. Here, we investigate the association between serum hepcidin and serum iron, outcome in patients with ICH. Serum samples of 81 cases with ICH were obtained on consecutive days to detect the levels of hepcidin,(More)
Post-stroke infections are common complications in acute stroke patients and are associated with an unfavorable functional outcome. However, reports on the effects of prophylactic antibiotics treatment on post-stroke infections are conflicting, especially those on post-stroke pneumonia and outcomes. We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Knowledge(More)
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