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Membrane transporters can be major determinants of the pharmacokinetic, safety and efficacy profiles of drugs. This presents several key questions for drug development, including which transporters are clinically important in drug absorption and disposition, and which in vitro methods are suitable for studying drug interactions with these transporters. In(More)
The multidrug resistance protein Mrp2 is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter mainly expressed in liver, kidney, and intestine. One of the physiological roles of Mrp2 is to transport bilirubin glucuronides from the liver into the bile. Current in vivo models to study Mrp2 are the transporter-deficient and Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rat strains. Previous(More)
Ethinylestradiol (EE) is one of the key constituents of oral contraceptives. Major metabolites of EE in humans are the glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, EE-3-O-glucuronide (EE-G) and EE-3-O-sulfate (EE-S). In the present study, transport of EE-G and EE-S by the human multidrug resistance proteins MRP1, MRP2, and MRP3 was investigated using inside-out(More)
Fa2N-4 cells have been proposed as a tool to identify CYP3A4 inducers. To evaluate whether Fa2N-4 cells are a reliable surrogate for cryopreserved human hepatocytes, we assessed the basal mRNA expression of 64 drug disposition genes in Fa2N-4 cells. Significant differences were found in the expression of major drug-metabolizing enzymes, nuclear receptors,(More)
Sitagliptin, a selective dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor recently approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, is excreted into the urine via active tubular secretion and glomerular filtration in humans. In this report, we demonstrate that sitagliptin is transported by human organic anion transporter hOAT3 (Km=162 microM), organic anion transporting(More)
This white paper provides a critical analysis of methods for estimating transporter kinetics and recommendations on proper parameter calculation in various experimental systems. Rational interpretation of transporter-knockout animal findings and application of static and dynamic physiologically based modeling approaches for prediction of human(More)
AIMS Rosuvastatin and pitavastatin have been proposed as probe substrates for the organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B, but clinical data on their relative sensitivity and selectivity to OATP1B inhibitors are lacking. A clinical study was therefore conducted to determine their relative suitability as OATP1B probes using single oral (PO) and(More)
INTRODUCTION Drug transporters play an important role in the absorption, distribution, and excretion (ADE) of many drugs. In the last several years it has become increasingly clear that there are significant differences between rodents, dog, monkey, and human in the substrate specificity, tissue distribution, and relative abundance of transporters. These(More)
The development of zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) technology has enabled the genetic engineering of the rat genome. The ability to manipulate the rat genome has great promise to augment the utility of rats for biological and pharmacological studies. A Wistar Hannover rat model lacking the multidrug resistance protein Mdr1a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was generated(More)
Valacyclovir is the 5'-valyl ester prodrug of acyclovir, an effective anti-herpetic drug. Systemic availability of acyclovir in humans is three to five times higher when administered orally as the prodrug. The increased bioavailability of valacyclovir is attributed to carrier-mediated intestinal absorption, via the hPEPT1 peptide transporter, followed by(More)