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Candida albicans is an opportunistic, fungal pathogen of humans that frequently causes superficial infections of oral and vaginal mucosal surfaces of debilitated and susceptible individuals. The organism is however, commonly encountered as a commensal in healthy individuals where it is a component of the normal microflora. The key determinant in the type of(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Their expressions are altered in response to a variety of stimuli, including growth factors, inflammatory markers, and cytokines. In this study, we demonstrated that platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) induces a dose- and time-dependent increase in(More)
Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that normally exists as a harmless commensal in humans. In instances where host debilitation occurs, Candida can cause a range of clinical infections, and whilst these are primarily superficial, effecting mucosal membranes, systemic infections can develop in severely immunocompromised individuals. The(More)
Interferon (IFN)-gamma-producing CD8+ T cells are important for the successful resolution of the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii by preventing the reactivation or controlling a repeat infection. Previous reports from our laboratory have shown that exogenous interleukin (IL)-15 treatment augments the CD8+ T cell response against the(More)
Macrophages are heterogeneous cell populations that are present in all tissues. Macrophages can be divided into classically activated inflammatory macrophages (M1) and alternatively activated anti-inflammatory macrophages (M2). It has been generally accepted that M1 macrophages are polarised in an inflammatory environment to produce pro-inflammatory(More)
Human infections involving yeast of the genus Candida often occur in the presence of bacteria, and, as such, it is important to understand how these bacteria influence innate host immunity towards Candida. Dectin-1 is a cell receptor of macrophages for Candida albicans recognition. The aim of this study was to examine dectin-1 expression by monocytes after(More)
Due to its critical role in NK cell differentiation and CD8(+) T cell homeostasis, the importance of IL-15 is more firmly established for cytolytic effectors of the immune system than for CD4(+) T cells. The increased levels of IL-15 found in several CD4(+) T cell-driven (auto-) immune diseases prompted us to examine how IL-15 influences murine CD4(+) T(More)
Opportunistic oral infections caused by Candida albicans are frequent problems in immunocompromised patients. Management of such infections is limited due to the low number of antifungal drugs available, their relatively high toxicity and the emergence of antifungal resistance. Given these issues, our investigations have focused on novel derivatives of the(More)
Interleukin- (IL-) 37 is a novel anti-inflammatory cytokine that suppresses immune response and inflammation. This study was performed to determine whether IL-37 was elevated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and investigate the correlation between IL-37 level and disease activity and the concentration of Th1/Th2/Th17-related cytokines. Clinical(More)
Candida albicans is a fungus that is an opportunistic pathogen of humans. Normally, C. albicans exists as a harmless commensal and does not trigger inflammatory responses by resident macrophages in skin mucosa, which may be caused by a tolerance of skin macrophage to C. albicans. IL-34 is a recently discovered cytokine, constitutively expressed by(More)