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We use fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching to study vesicle dynamics inside the synapses of cultured hippocampal neurons labeled with the fluorescent vesicle marker FM 1-43. These studies show that when the cell is electrically at rest, only a small population of vesicles is mobile, taking seconds to traverse(More)
We investigate swimming and chemotactic behaviors of the polarly flagellated marine bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus in an aqueous medium. Our observations show that V. alginolyticus execute a cyclic, three-step (forward, reverse, and flick) swimming pattern that is distinctively different from the run-tumble pattern adopted by Escherichia coli. Specifically,(More)
An optical trapping technique is implemented to investigate the chemotactic behavior of a marine bacterial strain Vibrio alginolyticus. The technique takes the advantage that the bacterium has only a single polar flagellum, which can rotate either in the counter-clock-wise or clock-wise direction. The two rotation states of the motor can be readily and(More)
Two models were recently proposed to enable us to understand the dynamics of synaptic vesicles in hippocampal neurons. In the caged diffusion model, the vesicles diffuse in small circular cages located randomly in the bouton, while in the stick-and-diffuse model the vesicles bind and release from a cellular cytomatrix. In this article, we obtain analytic(More)
We found recently that polar flagellated marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus is capable of exhibiting taxis toward a chemical source in both forward and backward swimming directions. How the microorganism coordinates these two swimming intervals, however, is not known. The work presented herein is aimed at determining the response functions of the(More)
We recently found that marine bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus execute a cyclic 3-step (run- reverse-flick) motility pattern that is distinctively different from the 2-step (run-tumble) pattern of Escherichia coli. How this novel swimming pattern is regulated by cells of V. alginolyticus is not currently known, but its significance for bacterial chemotaxis is(More)
Marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus uses a single polar flagellum to navigate in an aqueous environment. Similar to Escherichia coli cells, the polar flagellar motor has two states; when the motor is counterclockwise , the cell swims forward and when the motor is clockwise, the cell swims backward. V. alginolyticus also incorporates a direction(More)
Marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus uses a single polar flagellum to navigate in an aqueous environment. Similar to Escherichia coli cells, the polar flagellar motor has two states; when the motor is counter-clockwise, the cell swims forward and when the motor is clockwise, the cell swims backward. V. alginolyticus also incorporates a direction(More)
Microbes living in stagnant water typically rely on chemical diffusion to draw nutrients from their environment. The sulfur-oxidizing bacterium Thiovulum majus and the ciliate Uronemella have independently evolved the ability to form a 'veil', a centimetre-scale mucous sheet on which cells organize to produce a macroscopic flow. This flow pulls nutrients(More)
The classic mode of communication between neurons occurs via chemical synapses. In this process, vesicles dock at the active zone and fuse with the cell membrane, emptying neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft. This process is stochastic and the efficacy of synaptic communication depends on the availability and movement of vesicles. We use fluorescence(More)