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The environmental strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 promotes plant growth and suppresses plant pathogenic organisms present in the rhizosphere. We sampled sequenced the genome of FZB42 and identified 2,947 genes with >50% identity on the amino acid level to the corresponding genes of Bacillus subtilis 168. Six large gene clusters encoding nonribosomal(More)
Although bacterial polyketides are of considerable biomedical interest, the molecular biology of polyketide biosynthesis in Bacillus spp., one of the richest bacterial sources of bioactive natural products, remains largely unexplored. Here we assign for the first time complete polyketide synthase (PKS) gene clusters to Bacillus antibiotics. Three giant(More)
BACKGROUND Characterisation of the severity profile of human infections with influenza viruses of animal origin is a part of pandemic risk assessment, and an important part of the assessment of disease epidemiology. Our objective was to assess the clinical severity of human infections with avian influenza A H7N9 virus, which emerged in China in early 2013.(More)
The genome of environmental Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 harbors numerous gene clusters involved in synthesis of antifungal and antibacterial acting secondary metabolites. Five gene clusters, srf, bmy, fen, nrs, dhb, covering altogether 137 kb, direct non-ribosomal synthesis of the cyclic lipopeptides surfactin, bacillomycin, fengycin, an unknown(More)
In the genome of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42, three operons pks1, pks2, and pks3 were identified which encode the biosynthesis of polyketides. pks1 and pks3 have been attributed to the production of bacillaene and difficidin/oxydifficidin, respectively, while the pks2 product remained hitherto unknown. Mass spectrometric analysis of the culture(More)
Nine gene clusters dedicated to nonribosomal synthesis of secondary metabolites with possible antimicrobial action, including polymyxin and fusaricidin, were detected within the whole genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) Paenibacillus polymyxa M-1. To survey the antimicrobial compounds expressed by M-1 we analyzed the active(More)
A series of binol- and H8-binol-based phosphoric acids have for the first time been evaluated for their ability to catalyze Biginelli reactions of aldehydes, thiourea or urea, and beta-keto esters. A new chiral phosphoric acid, derived from 3,3'-diphenyl-H8-binol, exhibited superior catalytic activity and enantioselectivity compared to its structural(More)
—Genetic algorithm (GA) is a powerful method to solve constrained optimization problems (COPs). In this paper, a new fitness function based hybrid genetic optimization algorithm (NFFHGA) for COPs is proposed, in which a new crossover operator based on Union Design is presented, and inspired by the smooth function technique, a new fitness function is(More)