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The relationships between plant viruses, their herbivore vectors and host plants can be beneficial, neutral, or antagonistic, depending on the species involved. This variation in relationships may affect the process of biological invasion and the displacement of indigenous species by invaders when the invasive and indigenous organisms occur with niche(More)
BK-type K(+) channels are activated by voltage and intracellular Ca(2+), which is important in modulating muscle contraction, neural transmission, and circadian pacemaker output. Previous studies suggest that the cytosolic domain of BK channels contains two different Ca(2+) binding sites, but the molecular composition of one of the sites is not completely(More)
Cerebrovascular dysfunction is strongly associated with neonatal intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and stroke in adults. Cerebrovascular endothelial cells (ECs) play important roles in maintaining a stable cerebral circulation in the central nervous system by interacting with pericytes. However, the genetic mechanisms controlling the functions of cerebral ECs(More)
Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) is a multifunctional cytokine involved in skeletal development. Smad4 is the central intracellular mediator of TGFbeta signaling. Our previous studies reveal that Smad4 is required for maintaining the normal development of chondrocytes in the growth plate. However, its biological function during postnatal bone(More)
Autophagy degrades cytoplasmic proteins and organelles to recycle cellular components that are required for cell survival and tissue homeostasis. However, it is not clear how autophagy is regulated in mammalian cells. WASH (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) and SCAR homologue) plays an essential role in endosomal sorting through facilitating tubule(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between variants in the HLA-DRB1 gene and Kashin-Beck disease (KBD), as well as associations of selenium and iodine deficiencies with KBD in a Tibetan population. METHODS Fourteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped around the HLA-DRB1 gene, and HLA-DRB1 allele genotyping was performed in a(More)
Coronary arteries bring blood flow to the heart muscle. Understanding the developmental program of the coronary arteries provides insights into the treatment of coronary artery diseases. Multiple sources have been described as contributing to coronary arteries including the proepicardium, sinus venosus (SV), and endocardium. However, the developmental(More)
An attention network test (ANT) provides a behavioral measure of the efficiency of the three attention networks (alerting, orienting and executive networks) within a single task. In the present study, we investigated the effect of passive hyperthermia on the attention network with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The behavioral(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family members exert their function via specific type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors and intracellular Smad transcription factors, including the common mediator Smad4. The dual effects of TGF-beta signaling on tumor initiation and progression are cell-specific and yet to be determined under(More)