Learn More
Reversible acetylation of alpha-tubulin has been implicated in regulating microtubule stability and function. The distribution of acetylated alpha-tubulin is tightly controlled and stereotypic. Acetylated alpha-tubulin is most abundant in stable microtubules but is absent from dynamic cellular structures such as neuronal growth cones and the leading edges(More)
Radiotherapy represents the most effective nonsurgical treatments for gliomas. However, gliomas are highly radioresistant and recurrence is nearly universal. Results from our laboratory and other groups suggest that cancer stem cells contribute to radioresistance in gliomas and breast cancers. The Notch pathway is critically implicated in stem cell fate(More)
beta-Arrestins bind to activated seven transmembrane-spanning (7TMS) receptors (G protein-coupled receptors) after the receptors are phosphorylated by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), thereby regulating their signaling and internalization. Here, we demonstrate an unexpected and analogous role of beta-arrestin 2 (betaarr2) for the single(More)
In normal epithelial tissues, the multifunctional cytokine transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) acts as a tumor suppressor through growth inhibition and induction of differentiation whereas in advanced cancers, TGF-beta promotes tumor progression through induction of tumor invasion, neoangiogenesis, and immunosuppression. The molecular mechanisms(More)
Metastasis, the major cause of cancer death, is a multistep process that requires interactions between cancer cells and stromal cells and between cancer cells and extracellular matrix. Molecular alterations of the extracellular matrix in the tumor microenvironment have a considerable impact on the metastatic process during tumorigenesis. Here we report that(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)/bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling is involved in the vast majority of cellular processes and is fundamentally important during the entire life of all metazoans. Deregulation of TGF-beta/BMP activity almost invariably leads to developmental defects and/or diseases, including cancer. The proper functioning of(More)
Molecular mechanisms associated with tumor metastasis remain poorly understood. Here we report that acquired expression of periostin by colon cancer cells greatly promoted metastatic development of colon tumors. Periostin is overexpressed in more than 80% of human colon cancers examined with highest expression in metastatic tumors. Periostin expression(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling plays an important regulatory role during lung fibrogenesis. Smad3 was identified in the pathway for transducing TGF-beta signals from the cell membrane to the nucleus. Using mice without Smad3 gene expression, we investigated whether Smad3 could regulate bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vivo. Mice(More)
Glioblastomas are the most common and most lethal primary brain tumor. Recent studies implicate an important role for a restricted population of neoplastic cells (glioma stem cells (GSCs)) in glioma maintenance and recurrence. We now demonstrate that GSCs preferentially express two interleukin 6 (IL6) receptors: IL6 receptor alpha (IL6R alpha) and(More)