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During apoptosis, dying cells are quickly internalized by neighboring cells or phagocytes, and are enclosed in phagosomes that undergo a maturation process to generate the phagoslysosome, in which cell corpses are eventually degraded. It is not well understood how apoptotic cell degradation is regulated. Here we report the identification and(More)
During programmed cell death, apoptotic cells are recognized and rapidly engulfed by phagocytes. Although a number of genes have been identified that promote cell corpse engulfment, it is not well understood how phagocytosis of apoptotic cells is negatively regulated. Here we have identified Caenorhabditis elegans myotubularin MTM-1 as a negative regulator(More)
Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells requires recognition of cell corpses followed by internalization and enclosure within plasma membrane-derived phagosomes. Phagosomes undergo maturation to generate phagolysosomes in which cell corpses are degraded; however, regulation of the maturation process is poorly understood. Here, we identified Rab GTPase 14, which(More)
BACKGROUND During programmed cell death, apoptotic cells are rapidly removed by phagocytes. How dying cells are recognized remains poorly understood. RESULTS Here we identify a secreted lipid transfer/LPS-binding family protein, NRF-5, which is required for efficient clearance of cell corpses. We observed that phosphatidylserine (PS), which is(More)
Apoptotic cell degradation is a fundamental process for organism development, and impaired clearance causes inflammatory or autoimmune disease. Although autophagy genes were reported to be essential for exposing the engulfment signal on apoptotic cells, their roles in phagocytes for apoptotic cell removal are not well understood. In this paper, we develop(More)
Phagocytosis requires phosphoinositides (PIs) as both signaling molecules and localization cues. How PIs coordinate to control phagosomal sealing and the accompanying switch of organelle identity is unclear. In this study, we followed dynamic changes in PIs during apoptotic cell clearance in Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that(More)
The molecular understanding of autophagy has originated almost exclusively from yeast genetic studies. Little is known about essential autophagy components specific to higher eukaryotes. Here we perform genetic screens in C. elegans and identify four metazoan-specific autophagy genes, named epg-2, -3, -4, and -5. Genetic analysis reveals that epg-2, -3, -4,(More)
Endocytic sorting is achieved through the formation of morphologically and functionally distinct sub-domains within early endosomes. Cargoes destined for recycling are sorted to and transported through newly-formed tubular membranes, but the processes that regulate membrane tubulation are poorly understood. Here, we identified a novel Caenorhabditis elegans(More)
Defective catabolite export from lysosomes results in lysosomal storage diseases in humans. Mutations in the cystine transporter gene CTNS cause cystinosis, but other lysosomal amino acid transporters are poorly characterized at the molecular level. Here, we identified the Caenorhabditis elegans lysosomal lysine/arginine transporter LAAT-1. Loss of laat-1(More)
BACKGROUNDS Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) plays a crucial role in the progression of breast cancer (BC). The prognostic role of MMP-2 expression in BC patients has been widely reported, but the results were inconsistent. Thus, a meta-analysis was conducted to gain a better insight into the impact of MMP-2 expression on survival and clinicopathological(More)