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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) dysregulates innate immune responses and induces persistent viral infection. We previously demonstrated that HCV core protein impairs IL-12 expression by monocytes/macrophages (M/M(Φ)s) through interaction with a complement receptor gC1qR. Because HCV core-mediated lymphocyte dysregulation occurs through the negative immunomodulators(More)
T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (Tim-3) is a newly identified negative immunomodulator that is up-regulated on dysfunctional T cells during viral infections. The expression and function of Tim-3 on human innate immune responses during HCV infection, however, remains poorly characterized. In this study, we report that Tim-3 is(More)
This paper presents a microfluidic system for cell type classification using mechanical and electrical measurements on single cells. Cells are aspirated continuously through a constriction channel with cell elongations and impedance profiles measured simultaneously. The cell transit time through the constriction channel and the impedance amplitude ratio are(More)
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the potential of a polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticle (PLN) system to enhance cellular accumulation and retention of doxorubicin (Dox), a widely used anticancer drug and an established P-glycoprotein (Pgp) substrate, in Pgp-overexpressing cancer cell lines and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Nanoparticles(More)
T regulatory (T(R)) cells suppress T-cell responses that are critical in the development of chronic viral infection and associated malignancies. Programmed death-1 (PD-1) also has a pivotal role in regulation of T-cell functions during chronic viral infection. To examine the role of PD-1 pathway in regulating T(R)-cell functions that inhibit T-cell(More)
Human monocytes/macrophages (M/M(Ф)) of the innate immunity sense and respond to microbial products via specific receptor coupling with stimulatory (such as TLR) and inhibitory (such as Tim-3) receptors. Current models imply that Tim-3 expression on M/M(Ø) can deliver negative signaling to TLR-mediated IL-12 expression through trans association with its(More)
αvβ3 integrin receptors expressed on cancer cell surfaces play a crucial role in promoting tumor angiogenesis and cancer cell metastasis. Thus, cyclic arginyl-glycyl-aspartic acid (cRGD) peptides have been explored as a αvβ3 integrin receptor-specific targeting moiety for the targeted delivery of nanoparticle-loaded therapeutics. However, our previous study(More)
This paper presents the use of a monolithic, force-feedback MEMS (microelectomechanical systems) microgripper for characterizing both elastic and viscoelastic properties of highly deformable hydrogel microcapsules (15–25µm) at wet state during micromanipulation. The single-chip microgripper integrates an electrothermal microactuator and two(More)
Coinfection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is quite common, leading to an increase in morbidity and mortality. As such, HBV vaccination is recommended in HCV-infected individuals. However, HBV vaccine responses in HCV-infected individuals are often blunted compared with uninfected populations. The mechanism for this failure of(More)
Most anti-angiogenic therapies currently being evaluated in clinical trials target vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway, however, the tumor vasculature can acquire resistance to VEGF-targeted therapy by shifting to other angiogenesis mechanisms. Therefore, other potential therapeutic agents that block non-VEGF angiogenic pathways need to be(More)