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T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (Tim-3) is a newly identified negative immunomodulator that is up-regulated on dysfunctional T cells during viral infections. The expression and function of Tim-3 on human innate immune responses during HCV infection, however, remains poorly characterized. In this study, we report that Tim-3 is(More)
Astrocytes play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of ischemic neuronal death. The optimal operation of electrogenic astrocytic transporters and exchangers for some well-defined astrocyte brain homeostatic functions depends on the presence of K+ channels in the cell membranes and the hyperpolarized membrane potential. Our previous study showed that(More)
Stimulation of the nucleus magnocellularis (NMC) of the medulla produces changes in locomotion, muscle tone, heart rate, and blood pressure. Glutamatergic input has been found to modulate muscle tone, whereas cholinergic input has been found to mediate cardiovascular changes produced by stimulation of the NMC. The current study was designed to identify the(More)
Activation of the vagal afferents by noxious gastrointestinal stimuli suggests that vagal afferents may play a complex role in visceral pain processes. The contribution of the vagus nerve to visceral pain remains unresolved. Previous studies reported that patients following chronic vagotomy have lower pain thresholds. The patient with irritable bowel(More)
This paper presents a microfluidic system for cell type classification using mechanical and electrical measurements on single cells. Cells are aspirated continuously through a constriction channel with cell elongations and impedance profiles measured simultaneously. The cell transit time through the constriction channel and the impedance amplitude ratio are(More)
BACKGROUND Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS). It has caused heavy losses in global agriculture in recent decades. Rapid detection of PCV2 is very important for the effective prophylaxis and treatment of PMWS. RESULTS A(More)
T regulatory (T(R)) cells suppress T-cell responses that are critical in the development of chronic viral infection and associated malignancies. Programmed death-1 (PD-1) also has a pivotal role in regulation of T-cell functions during chronic viral infection. To examine the role of PD-1 pathway in regulating T(R)-cell functions that inhibit T-cell(More)
Human monocytes/macrophages (M/M(Ф)) of the innate immunity sense and respond to microbial products via specific receptor coupling with stimulatory (such as TLR) and inhibitory (such as Tim-3) receptors. Current models imply that Tim-3 expression on M/M(Ø) can deliver negative signaling to TLR-mediated IL-12 expression through trans association with its(More)
UNLABELLED The vagus nerve conveys meal-induced primary afferent responses to the brainstem. Electrophysiological studies indicate that luminal stimuli such as osmolarity and the digestion products of carbohydrates elicit powerful vagal nodose neuronal responses by activating serotonin 3 (5-hydroxytryptamine-3, 5-HT3) receptors on intestinal mucosal(More)
The chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 5 (CHD5) has recently been identified as a tumor suppressor in a mouse model. The CHD5 locus at 1p36 is deleted, and its mutation has been detected in breast cancer. We, therefore, evaluated whether CHD5 plays a role in human breast cancer. We screened mutations in 55 tumors, determined promoter methylation in(More)