Xiao-Yong Fan

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As infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae (mainly via the mucosal route) is a leading cause of acute otitis media, sinus and bacterial pneumonia, the mucosal immunity plays an important role in the prevention of pneumococcal diseases. Therefore, intranasal vaccination may be an effective immunization strategy, but requires appropriate mucosal vaccine(More)
ESAT-6 is a protein produced by virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis but absent in Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and is considered as a promising vaccine subunit against tuberculosis. The protective efficacy of a new strategy based on the combination of DNA vaccine encoding ESAT-6 (DNA-E6) and BCG immunization was investigated in the(More)
Superoxide dismutases (SODs, EC 1.15.1.1) are one family of important antioxidant metalloenzymes involved in scavenging the high level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) into molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. In the present study, the intracellular CuZnSOD gene of Cristaria plicata (Cp-icCuZnSOD) was identified from hemocytes by homology cloning and the(More)
Rapid detection of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is essential for efficient treatment and control of this pathogen. The amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) was used to detect mutations in the rifampin resistance-determining region of the rpoB gene. A total of 39 rifampin-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates in Shanghai were(More)
The development of improved vaccines and vaccination strategies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been hindered by a limited understanding of the immune correlates of anti-tuberculosis protective immunity. Simple measurement of interferon-γ frequency or production per se does not provide adequate prediction of immune protection. In this study, we(More)
MazG nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase (NTP-PPase, EC 3.6.1.8) from the avirulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra contains a spontaneous mutation on a highly conserved residue, resulting in an A219E substitution (MtMazG[A219E]). In this work, we show that mycobacterial MazG from either the virulent M. tuberculosis H37Rv (MtMazG) or the(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health problem, and successful genetic manipulation of mycobacteria is crucial for developing new approaches to study the mechanism of pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) and to combat TB. In this study, a series of M.tb furA gene operator/promoter (pfurA) mutants were generated aiming at optimization(More)
T-helper type 1 (Th1) immune response is involved in the development of protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Thus, an increase in Th1 and cellular immune responses should lead to enhanced anti-mycobacterial activity. In this study, we aimed to improve Th1 immune responses to a DNA vaccine by adding potentially immunostimulatory nucleotide(More)
Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, is the only vaccine available for tuberculosis (TB) control. However, BCG is not an ideal vaccine and has two major limitations: BCG exhibits highly variable effectiveness against the development of TB both in pediatric and adult populations and can cause disseminated BCG disease in(More)
Generation of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in phagocytes is an important innate immune response mechanism to eliminate microbial pathogens. It is known that deoxynucleotides (dNTPs), the precursor nucleotides to DNA synthesis, are one group of the significant targets for these oxidants and incorporation of oxidized dNTPs into(More)