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Recent studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells could differentiate into germ cells under appropriate conditions. We sought to determine whether human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs) could form germ cells in vitro. HUMSCs were induced to differentiate into germ cells in all-trans retinoic acid,(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is remarkable at disrupting human immunity to establish chronic infection. Upregulation of inhibitory signaling pathways (such as T cell Ig and mucin domain protein-3 [Tim-3]) and accumulation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) play pivotal roles in suppressing antiviral effector T cell (Teff) responses that are essential for viral(More)
T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (Tim-3) is a newly identified negative immunomodulator that is up-regulated on dysfunctional T cells during viral infections. The expression and function of Tim-3 on human innate immune responses during HCV infection, however, remains poorly characterized. In this study, we report that Tim-3 is(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) dysregulates innate immune responses and induces persistent viral infection. We previously demonstrated that HCV core protein impairs IL-12 expression by monocytes/macrophages (M/M(Φ)s) through interaction with a complement receptor gC1qR. Because HCV core-mediated lymphocyte dysregulation occurs through the negative immunomodulators(More)
In this study, we demonstrate that killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily G member 1 (KLRG1), a transmembrane protein preferentially expressed on T cells, is highly expressed on CD56(+) NK cells, which are significantly reduced in their numbers and functions in the peripheral blood of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection compared to(More)
Tim-3 and PD-1 are powerful immunoinhibitory molecules involved in immune tolerance, autoimmune responses, and antitumor or antiviral immune evasion. A current model for Tim-3 regulation during immune responses suggests a divergent function, such that Tim-3 acts synergistically with TLR signaling pathways in innate immune cells to promote inflammation, yet(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is remarkably efficient at evading host immunity to establish chronic infection. During chronic HCV infection, interleukin-12 (IL-12) produced by monocytes/macrophages (M/Mφ) is significantly suppressed. Programmed death-1 (PD-1), an inhibitory receptor on immune cells, plays a pivotal role in suppressing T-cell responses during(More)
T regulatory (T(R)) cells suppress T-cell responses that are critical in the development of chronic viral infection and associated malignancies. Programmed death-1 (PD-1) also has a pivotal role in regulation of T-cell functions during chronic viral infection. To examine the role of PD-1 pathway in regulating T(R)-cell functions that inhibit T-cell(More)
Vaccination for hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the setting of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is recommended, but responses to vaccination are blunted when compared to uninfected populations. The mechanism for this failure of immune response in HCV-infected subjects remains unknown but is thought to be a result of lymphocyte dysfunction during chronic viral(More)
HCV infection is associated with immune dysregulation and B cell Non-Hodgkins lymphoma (HCV-NHL). We have previously shown in vitro that HCV core protein differentially regulates T and B cell functions through two negative signaling pathways, programmed death-1 (PD-1) and suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1). In this report, we performed a detailed(More)