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Cone snails, which are predatory marine gastropods, produce a cocktail of venoms used for predation, defense and competition. The major venom component, conotoxin, has received significant attention because it is useful in neuroscience research, drug development and molecular diversity studies. In this study, we report the genomic characterization of nine(More)
BACKGROUND Nitrilase is an important member of the nitrilase superfamiliy. It has attracted substantial interest from academia and industry for its function of converting nitriles directly into the corresponding carboxylic acids in recent years. Thus nitrilase has played a crucial role in production of commercial carboxylic acids in chemical industry and(More)
Supervised machine learning methods have been employed with great success in the task of biomedical relation extraction. However, existing methods are not practical enough, since manual construction of large training data is very expensive. Therefore, active learning is urgently needed for designing practical relation extraction methods with little human(More)
Today’s news readers can be easily overwhelmed by the numerous news articles online. To cope with information overload, online news media publishes timelines for continuously developing news topics. However, the timeline summary does not show the relationship of storylines, and is not intuitive for readers to comprehend the development of a complex news(More)
Nitrogen (N) addition can affect soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition by enhancing soil enzyme activity, increasing labile organic carbon (C) fractions and decreasing litter C/N ratio. This study was designed to investigate the short-term effect of N addition on litter and soil chemical and biological properties in Calamagrostis angustifolia freshwater(More)
Significant post-mortem changes in peptide concentration occur within the previously unstudied timeframe, i.e. within 1 h, for the proenkephalin A, proopiomelanoccortin, and tachykinin neuropeptidergic systems in the pituitary. These data differ from data obtained in other studies that concluded that peptides are stable for up to 72 h post-mortem. The(More)
A peptide toxin, lt16a, from the venom of the worm-hunting Conus litteratus, shares the typical signal peptide sequences of M-superfamily conotoxins, which usually contain six cysteine residues that are arranged in a CC-C-C-CC pattern. Interestingly, lt16a comprises 21 amino acid residues in its mature region and has a cysteine framework XVI, which is(More)
beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (BE-li), methionine enkephalin-like immunoreactivity (ME-li), and substance P-like immunoreactivity (SP-li) were measured in the posterior pituitary of rats that experienced a 5-day space flight in a Space Shuttle. ME-li and SP-li were both significantly lower compared to the control rats. However, there was no(More)