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We have fabricated three-dimensional optically active ZnO photonic crystals by infiltrating polystyrene opal templates using a low-temperature atomic layer deposition process. The polystyrene is removed by firing the samples at elevated temperatures, and reactive ion etching is used to remove the top layer of ZnO and expose the ͑111͒ photonic crystal(More)
In this paper; an imidazolium ionic liquid (IL) is used to functionalize multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) by covalent bonding on the MWNT surface. The functionalization not only provides a hydrophilic surface for ion accessibility but also prevents the aggregation of MWNTs. The IL-functionalized MWNTs were then applied for the electrochemical(More)
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