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The changes in spatial memory performances and the binding of hippocampal peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) induced by D-galactose (D-gal) were investigated in rats. The animals were randomly divided into two groups: saline-treated group and D-gal-induced aging group. All rats received 56 days of injection followed by 5 days of behavioral tests.(More)
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays a role in coordinating endocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses to stressful stimuli. Benzodiazepines exert many effects which oppose those of CRF, including anxiolysis and suppression of the pituitary-adrenal axis. In the present study, we employed in situ analysis of CRF heteronucleous RNA (hnRNA) and c-fos(More)
Zinc is coreleased with glutamate from excitatory nerve terminals throughout the central nervous system and acutely inhibits N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation. Here we report that cultured murine cortical neurons briefly exposed to sublethal concentrations of zinc developed increased intracellular free Na(+), phosphorylation of Src kinase at(More)
We studied the novel hypothesis that an up-modulation of channels for outward delayed rectifier K+ current (I(K)) plays a key role in ceramide-induced neuronal apoptosis. Exposure for 6-10 h to the membrane-permeable C2-ceramide (25 microM) or to sphingomyelinase (0.2 unit/ml), but not to the inactive ceramide analogue C2-dihydroceramide (25 microM),(More)
Activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors can induce neuronal apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. We showed previously that activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors in a low Ca(2+) and low Na(+) condition induced apoptotic neuronal death, and that the K(+) efflux via NMDA receptor channels was likely a key event in(More)
BACKGROUND Advanced glycation products (AGEs), as endogenous inflammatory mediator, compromise the physiological function of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs have a potential role in cell replacement therapy in acute myocardial infarction and ischemic cardiomyopathy. However, mechanisms of AGEs on MSCs are still not unveiled. METHODS Reactive oxygen(More)
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-regulated secretion of inflammatory cytokines in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is regarded as an important step in the progression of atherosclerosis; however, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in oxLDL-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines(More)
Tetraethylammonium (TEA), the quaternary ammonium ion and nonselective K(+) channel blocker, is protective against neuronal apoptosis. We now tested two TEA analogs, tetrapentylammonium (TPeA) and tetrahexylammonium (THA), for their effects on apoptotic neuronal death and for their pharmacological profiles on membrane currents in cultured mouse cortical(More)
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays a role in coordinating endocrine, physiological and behavioral responses to stressful stimuli. We have previously reported that centrally administered CRF rapidly induces c-fos mRNA expression in most areas that express c-fos following stress: the limbic structures including the hippocampus, amygdala, septal(More)