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Chronic changes in electrical excitability profoundly affect synaptic transmission throughout the lifetime of a neuron. We have previously explored persistent presynaptic silencing, a form of synaptic depression at glutamate synapses produced by ongoing neuronal activity and by strong depolarization. Here we investigate the involvement of the(More)
Neurons engage compensatory, homeostatic synaptic changes to maintain their overall firing rate. We examined the induction and expression of a persistent presynaptic adaptation. We explored the effect of mild extracellular potassium elevation to increase hippocampal pyramidal neuron spiking over a physiological range. With several days of mild(More)
Although action potential initiation and propagation are fundamental to nervous system function, there are few direct electrophysiological observations of propagating action potentials in small unmyelinated fibres, such as the axons within mammalian hippocampus. To circumvent limitations of previous studies that relied on extracellular stimulation, we(More)
BACKGROUND Although ethanol exerts widespread action in the brain, only recently has progress been made in understanding the specific events occurring at the synapse during ethanol exposure. Mice deficient in the calcium-stimulated adenylyl cyclases, AC1 and AC8 (DKO), demonstrate increased sedation duration and impaired phosphorylation by protein kinase A(More)
Astrocytes contribute to many neuronal functions, including synaptogenesis, but their role in the development of synaptic plasticity remains unclear. Presynaptic muting of hippocampal glutamatergic terminals defends against excitotoxicity. Here we studied the role of astrocytes in the development of presynaptic muting at glutamatergic synapses in rat(More)
Glutamate generates fast postsynaptic depolarization throughout the CNS. The positive-feedback nature of glutamate signaling likely necessitates flexible adaptive mechanisms that help prevent runaway excitation. We have previously explored presynaptic adaptive silencing, a form of synaptic plasticity produced by ongoing neuronal activity and by strong(More)
Glutamate and GABA are the major fast excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, respectively, in the CNS. Although glutamate and GABA have clearly distinct postsynaptic actions, we are just beginning to appreciate that presynaptic differences between glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons may contribute to distinct functions of these transmitter systems. We(More)
Alveolar epithelial cells were isolated from adult Sprague-Dawley rats and grown to confluence on membrane filters. Most of the basal short-circuit current (Isc; 60%) was inhibited by amiloride (IC50 0. 96 microM) or benzamil (IC50 0.5 microM). Basolateral addition of terbutaline (2 microM) produced a rapid decrease in Isc, followed by a slow recovery back(More)
Presynaptic stimulation stochastically recruits transmission according to the release probability (P(r)) of synapses. The majority of central synapses have relatively low P(r), which includes synapses that are completely quiescent presynaptically. The presence of presynaptically dormant versus active terminals presumably increases synaptic malleability when(More)
Glutamate release is a root cause of acute and delayed neuronal damage in response to hypoxic/ischemic insults. Nevertheless, therapeutics that target the postsynaptic compartment have been disappointing clinically. Here we explored whether presynaptic silencing (muting) of glutamatergic terminals is sufficient to reduce excitotoxic damage resulting from(More)