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Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy in higher eukaryotes
A set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of the methods that can be used by investigators who are attempting to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as by reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that investigate these processes are presented.
Bcl-2 functions in an antioxidant pathway to prevent apoptosis
BH1 and BH2 domains of Bcl-2 are required for inhibition of apoptosis and heterodimerization with Bax
Results establish a functional role for the BH1 and BH2 domains and suggest Bcl-2 exerts its action through heterodimerization with Bax, yet still permitted B cl-2 homo-dimerization.
Caspase Cleaved BID Targets Mitochondria and Is Required for Cytochrome c Release, while BCL-XL Prevents This Release but Not Tumor Necrosis Factor-R1/Fas Death*
- A. Gross, Xiao-Ming Yin, S. Korsmeyer
- Biology, ChemistryThe Journal of Biological Chemistry
- 8 January 1999
While BID appears to be required for the release of cytochrome c in the TNF death pathway, the release is likely not required for cell death, as other aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction still transpired and cells died nonetheless.
Bid-deficient mice are resistant to Fas-induced hepatocellular apoptosis
This loss-of-function model indicates that Bid is a critical substrate in vivo for signalling by death-receptor agonists, which mediates a mitochondrial amplification loop that is essential for the apoptosis of selected cells.
Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition)
There continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes, so it is important to update guidelines for monitoring autophagic activity in different organisms.
Principles and Current Strategies for Targeting Autophagy for Cancer Treatment
- R. Amaravadi, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, E. White
- Biology, ChemistryClinical Cancer Research
- 15 February 2011
The current understanding of the core components of the autophagy machinery and the functional relevance of autophile within the tumor microenvironment is described and how this knowledge has informed preclinical investigations combining the autophile inhibitor hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) with chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy is outlined.
Nix Is Critical to Two Distinct Phases of Mitophagy, Reactive Oxygen Species-mediated Autophagy Induction and Parkin-Ubiquitin-p62-mediated Mitochondrial Priming*
This work distinguished the molecular events responsible for the different phases of mitophagy and placed Nix upstream of the events, finding that Nix was required for the autophagy induction.
Mitophagy: mechanisms, pathophysiological roles, and analysis
Current knowledge on the mechanisms of mitophagy is summarized and the pathophysiological roles ofMitophagy are discussed, including induction of general autophagy and priming of damaged mitochondria for selective autophagic recognition.
Linking of autophagy to ubiquitin-proteasome system is important for the regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and cell viability.
Proteasome inhibitor-induced autophagy was important for controlling endoplasmic reticulum stress and reducing cell death in cancer cells and the functional significance of the link between the two protein degradation systems is elucidated.