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Direction selectivity (DS) of neuronal responses is fundamental for motion detection. How the integration of synaptic excitation and inhibition contributes to DS however remains not well-understood. Here, in vivo whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in mouse primary visual cortex (V1) revealed that layer 4 simple cells received direction-tuned excitatory(More)
To decipher neural circuits underlying brain functions, viral tracers are widely applied to map input and output connectivity of neuronal populations. Despite the successful application of retrograde transsynaptic viruses for identifying presynaptic neurons of transduced neurons, analogous anterograde transsynaptic tools for tagging postsynaptically(More)
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