Xiao Li Fan

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Beta-arrestins are a family of regulatory and scaffold proteins functioning in signal transduction of G protein-coupled receptors including opioid receptors. Upon agonist stimulation, beta-arrestins bind to opioid receptors phosphorylated by G protein-coupled receptor kinases and promote receptor internalization and desensitization. Studies indicated that(More)
Opioid agonist stimulates activation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) and causes desensitization of opioid signaling, which plays an important role in opioid tolerance. The current study investigated the potential regulatory effects of acute and chronic morphine administration and withdrawal on GRK2 and GRK5 gene expression in rat brain. Our(More)
During hind limb unloading (HU), the soleus is often in a shortened position and the natural physiological stimulus of muscle spindles is altered, such that muscle spindle activity also changes. Using isolated spindle conditions, the present study investigates the electrophysiological activity and ultrastructure of muscle spindles following HU. Results show(More)
It is well known that the muscle spindle is a receptor of muscle's tension and length, it plays an important role in maintaining the muscle's tension. The aim of the present study is to compare the cross-section area (CSA) and the immunoreactivity of conjugated-ubiquitin in soleus extrafusal and intrafusal fibers after simulated-microgravity in order to(More)
We report a transient absorption study of photocarrier dynamics in transition metal dichalcogenide alloy, Mo 0.5 W 0.5 S 2. Photocarriers were injected by a 400-nm pump pulse and detected by a 660-nm probe pulse. We observed a fast energy relaxation process of about 0.7 ps. The photocarrier lifetime is in the range of 50-100 ps, which weakly depends on the(More)
To determine whether the neuronal activity of the spindle cord in muscle spindle afferent pathways is altered after a period of hindlimb unloading (Hu), and after recovery, we focused on c-Fos-immunoreactivity in the spinal cord evoked by excitation of the muscle spindle in normal gravity and after 3, 7, and 14 days of Hu, and after 14 days of Hu with an(More)
To investigate the effects of prenatal stress (PNS) on high-voltage-activated (HVA) Ca2+ channel and delayed rectifier potassium currents (I(KD)) of freshly isolated rat offspring hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons, the pregnant rats of PNS group were exposed to restraint stress and patch clamp technique of whole-cell mode was employed to record HVA Ca2+ and(More)
Effect of muscle spindle afferent invoked by intraarterial injection of succinylcholine (Sch) on respiration was assessed by changes in unit discharge of respiration related neurons and phrenic nerve of 63 anesthetized, bilaterally vagotomized and artificially ventilated rabbits. The results are as follows. (1) Intra~arterial injection of Sch prolonged(More)
Using extracellular recording techniques, the effect of excitation of red nucleus (RN) on C-responses of wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons and the roles of RN in the inhibitory effect of spindle afferent activated by succinycholine (SCH) on C-responses of WDR neurons were studied. Stimulation of RN caused a significant reduction of nociceptive responses of(More)