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BACKGROUND Although an abundance of evidence has indicated that tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are associated with a favorable prognosis in patients with colon cancer, it is still unknown how TAMs exert a protective effect. This study examined whether TAMs are involved in hepatic metastasis of colon cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS One hundred and sixty(More)
Contrary to the reduction of depressive-like behavior observed in several strains of cytokine receptor knockout mice, mice lacking the specific receptor for interleukin (IL)-15 showed increased immobility in tail suspension and modified forced swimming tests. There was also a reduction in social interactions. The hippocampus of the IL15Rα knockout mice had(More)
Interleukin (IL)-15 and its receptors in cerebral microvascular endothelial cells play an important role in mediating neuroinflammatory signaling across the blood-brain barrier. Although alternative splice variants of IL15Ralpha (the specific receptor) are seen in immune cells, the presence and functions of splice variants have not been studied in the(More)
Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a cytokine produced in the normal brain that acts on its specific receptor IL-15Ralpha and co-receptors IL-2Rbeta and IL-2Rgamma in neuronal cells. The functions of the cerebral IL-15 system, however, are not yet clear. To test the hypothesis that IL-15Ralpha regulates metabolic activity and body temperature, we quantified the(More)
A novel contour descriptor for 2D shape matching and its application to image retrieval, This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune neuroinflammatory disease found mostly in young adults in the western world. Oxidative stress induced neuronal apoptosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of MS. In current study, astragaloside IV (ASI), a natural saponin molecule isolated from Astragalus membranceus, given at 20 mg/kg daily(More)
Harmine, a β-carboline alkaloid present in Peganum harmala with a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, has been shown to exert strong inhibition against acetylcholinesterase in vitro. However, whether it can rescue the impaired cognition has not been elucidated yet. In current study, we examined its effects on scopolamine-induced memory impairment(More)
Leptin, an adipocyte-derived cytokine, crosses the blood-brain barrier to act on many regions of the central nervous system (CNS). It participates in the regulation of energy balance, inflammatory processes, immune regulation, synaptic formation, memory condensation, and neurotrophic activities. This review focuses on the newly identified actions of leptin(More)
Interleukin (IL)-15 can cross the blood-brain barrier to act on its specific brain receptor (IL15Ralpha) and co-receptors. The important roles of neuronal IL15 and IL15Ralpha in experimental autoimmune encephalomeylitis (EAE) are suggested by the upregulation of IL15Ralpha mRNA in different regions of the brain and spinal cord, and by double-labeling(More)