Xiao-Jiang Sun

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Since the discovery of insulin nearly 70 years ago, there has been no problem more fundamental to diabetes research than understanding how insulin works at the cellular level. Insulin binds to the alpha subunit of the insulin receptor which activates the tyrosine kinase in the beta subunit, but the molecular events linking the receptor kinase to(More)
The protein IRS-1 acts as an interface between signalling proteins with Src-homology-2 domains (SH2 proteins) and the receptors for insulin, IGF-1, growth hormone, several interleukins (IL-4, IL-9, IL-13) and other cytokines. It regulates gene expression and stimulates mitogenesis, and appears to mediate insulin/IGF-1-stimulated glucose transport. Thus,(More)
IRS-1 undergoes rapid tyrosine phosphorylation during insulin stimulation and forms a stable complex containing the 85 kDa subunit (p85) of the phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 3'-kinase, but p85 is not tyrosyl phosphorylated. IRS-1 contains nine tyrosine phosphorylation sites in YXXM (Tyr-Xxx-Xxx-Met) motifs. Formation of the IRS-1-PtdIns 3'-kinase complex in(More)
IRS-1 is a unique cytosolic protein that becomes tyrosine phosphorylated during insulin stimulation of intact cells and immediately associates with the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PtdIns 3'-kinase). The insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptor also mediated the tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and increased the amount of PtdIns 3'-kinase activity(More)
Interferon-alpha (IFN alpha) induces rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), a docking protein with multiple tyrosine phosphorylation sites that bind to the Src homology 2 (SH2) domains of various signaling proteins. During IFN alpha stimulation, the p85 regulatory subunit of the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase binds via(More)
Angiotensin II (AII), acting via its G-protein linked receptor, is an important regulator of cardiac, vascular, and renal function. Following injection of AII into rats, we find that there is also a rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of the major insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 (IRS-1 and IRS-2) in the heart. This phenomenon appears to involve JAK2 tyrosine(More)
The molecular basis for the beta-cell dysfunction that characterizes non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is unknown. The Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) male rat is a rodent model of NIDDM with a predictable progression from the prediabetic to the diabetic state. We are using this model to study beta-cell function during the development of diabetes(More)
IRS-1 is an insulin receptor substrate that undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation and associates with the phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 3'-kinase immediately after insulin stimulation. Recombinant IRS-1 protein was tyrosine phosphorylated by the insulin receptor in vitro and associated with the PtdIns 3'-kinase from lysates of quiescent 3T3 fibroblasts.(More)
The antifungal activity of sodium silicate on Fusarium sulphureum and its inhibitory effect on dry rot of potato tubers were investigated. Sodium silicate strongly inhibited spore germination and mycelial growth. Morphological changes in sodium silicate-treated hyphae such as mycelium sparsity and asymmetry, hyphal swelling, curling, and cupped shape were(More)
GRB-2 is a small SH2- and SH3 domain-containing adapter protein that associates with the mammalian SOS homolog to regulate p21ras during growth factor signaling. During insulin stimulation, GRB-2 binds to the phosphorylated Y895VNI motif of IRS-1. Substitution of Tyr-895 with phenylalanine (IRS-1F-895) prevented the IRS-1-GRB-2 association in vivo and in(More)