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Vibrio parahaemolyticus harbours two distinct type III secretion systems (T3SS1 and T3SS2). A subset of 10 T3SS1 genes are transcribed when V. parahaemolyticus is grown in tissue culture medium [Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM)], while transcription of these genes (except exsD) is minimal upon growth in Luria-Bertani-Salt (LB-S). Transcription of(More)
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading cause of seafood-borne gastroenteritis in many parts of the world, but there is limited knowledge of the pathogenesis of V. parahaemolyticus-induced diarrhea. The absence of an oral infection-based small animal model to study V. parahaemolyticus intestinal colonization and disease has constrained analyses of the course(More)
The genes encoding the nucleotide-binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) motifs constitute a large gene family in plants and have attracted much interest, because most of the plant disease-resistance genes that have been cloned are from this gene family. In this study, degenerate oligonucleotide primers, designed on the basis of conserved regions(More)
BACKGROUND BAFF, in addition to promoting B cell survival and differentiation, may affect T cells. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of BAFF on Th17 cell generation and its ramifications for the Th17 cell-driven disease, EAE. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Th17 cells were increased in BAFF-Tg B6 (B6.BTg) mice and decreased in(More)
BACKGROUND Protective CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells bearing the Forkhead Foxp3 transcription factor can now be divided into three subsets: Endogenous thymus-derived cells, those induced in the periphery, and another subset induced ex-vivo with pharmacological amounts of IL-2 and TGF-β. Unfortunately, endogenous CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells are unstable and(More)
The Solanaceae family includes some important vegetable crops, and they often suffer from salinity stress. Some miRNAs have been identified to regulate gene expression in plant response to salt stress; however, little is known about the involvement of miRNAs in Solanaceae species. To identify salt-responsive miRNAs, high-throughput sequencing was used to(More)
Both nature and induced regulatory T (Treg) lymphocytes are potent regulators of autoimmune and allergic disorders. Defects in endogenous Treg cells have been reported in patients with allergic asthma, suggesting that disrupted Treg cell-mediated immunological regulation may play an important role in airway allergic inflammation. In order to determine(More)
Over the past decade, the ability of regulatory T cells (Tregs) to suppress multiple types of immune cells has received tremendous attention. Mounting evidence has revealed that tissue resident Tregs control non-immunological processes of their target tissues and contribute to a plethora of human diseases. The identification of novel tissue-specific Tregs(More)
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading worldwide cause of seafood-associated gastroenteritis, yet little is known regarding its intraintestinal gene expression or physiology. To date, in vivo analyses have focused on identification and characterization of virulence factors--e.g. a crucial Type III secretion system (T3SS2)--rather than genome-wide analyses(More)