Xiao-Hong Wang

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Innate immunity against bacterial and fungal pathogens is mediated by Toll and immune deficiency (Imd) pathways, but little is known about the antiviral response in Drosophila. Here, we demonstrate that an RNA interference pathway protects adult flies from infection by two evolutionarily diverse viruses. Our work also describes a molecular framework for the(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection frequently persists despite substantial virus-specific cellular immune responses. To determine if immunologically driven sequence variation occurs with HCV persistence, we coordinately analyzed sequence evolution and CD8+ T cell responses to epitopes covering the entire HCV polyprotein in subjects who were followed(More)
BACKGROUND Neither previous hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection nor vaccination with HCV-derived antigens protects against reinfection. However, HCV infection and vaccination in chimpanzees has been shown to reduce the magnitude and duration of viraemia with re-challenge. We aimed to establish whether similar immunity could be achieved in man. METHODS From(More)
The small RNA-directed viral immunity pathway in plants and invertebrates begins with the production by Dicer nuclease of virus-derived siRNAs (viRNAs), which guide specific antiviral silencing by Argonaute protein in an RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Molecular identity of the viral RNA precursor of viRNAs remains a matter of debate. Using Flock(More)
Little is known about the individual components of honey that are responsible for its antioxidant activity. The present study was carried out to characterize the phenolics and other antioxidants present in honeys from seven floral sources. Chromatograms of the phenolic nonpolar fraction of the honeys indicated that most honeys have similar but(More)
The endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 (ESM-1) gene is involved in various biological events. This study was designed to clarify its clinical significance and explore its biological behavior in gastric cancer (GC). ESM-1 mRNA expression was evaluated by real-time PCR in GC (n = 34) and matched adjacent normal tissues (n = 14). The expression of ESM-1(More)
The genomic sequences of viruses that are highly mutable and cause chronic infection tend to diverge over time. We report that these changes represent both immune-driven selection and, in the absence of immune pressure, reversion toward an ancestral consensus. Sequence changes in hepatitis C virus (HCV) structural and nonstructural genes were studied in a(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Despite recent characterization of hepatitis C virus-specific neutralizing antibodies, it is not clear to what extent immune pressure from neutralizing antibodies drives viral sequence evolution in vivo. This lack of understanding is particularly evident in acute infection, the phase when elimination or persistence of viral replication is(More)
A platinum-based two-drug regimen is currently the standard of care for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, chemotherapy-induced side effects still remain a significant clinical problem. Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) is a polysaccharide isolated from the radix of astragalus membranaceus, a commonly used herbal compound in(More)