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There are multiple sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cell. As a major site of ROS production, mitochondria have drawn considerable interest because it was recently discovered that mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) directly stimulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines and pathological conditions as diverse as malignancies, autoimmune diseases,(More)
Leptin is a hormone that reduces excitability in some hypothalamic neurons via leptin receptor activation of the JAK2 and PI3K intracellular signaling pathways. We hypothesized that leptin receptor activation in other neuronal subtypes would have anticonvulsant activity and that intranasal leptin delivery would be an effective route of administration. We(More)
It remains unknown whether newly identified anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-35 (IL-35) is different from other anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β in terms of inhibition of inflammation initiation and suppression of full-blown inflammation. Using experimental database mining and(More)
PURPOSE The therapy for focal neocortical epilepsy remains suboptimal. We have, therefore, worked to develop techniques to cool small regions of the neocortical surface for seizure mapping and, ultimately, for long-term suppression of focal seizures. METHODS We induced focal neocortical seizures in halothane-anesthetized rats by the microinjection of(More)
In the course of experiments on focal epilepsy in rats, we have recognized that there are no adequate models of subacute focal epilepsy in rodents. We have, therefore, reevaluated a previously described rat model that reliably generates subacute seizures over 2-3 weeks. After implantation of a short length of cobalt wire into the left motor cortex, the(More)
PURPOSE The antiepileptic drug levetiracetam (LEV) is an enigma. Despite the fact that it specifically binds to the presynaptic vesicle protein, SV2A, no satisfactory mechanism of action has yet been identified. Using a combination of electrophysiological and cellular imaging techniques, we carefully tested the hypothesis that LEV directly interferes with(More)
PURPOSE Previous clinical and experimental observations have demonstrated that cooling the brain can rapidly terminate focal seizures. We wished to determine whether cooling at regular intervals could prevent or attenuate the development of seizures in a model of focal epilepsy. METHODS We induced focal neocortical seizures in halothane-anesthetized rats(More)
Epilepsy is associated with significant neurological morbidity, including learning disabilities, motor deficits, and behavioral problems. Although the causes of neurological dysfunction in epilepsy are multifactorial, accumulating evidence indicates that seizures in themselves may directly cause brain injury. Although it is clear that seizures can result in(More)
Focal cortical cooling inhibits seizures and prevents acquired epileptogenesis in rodents. To investigate the potential clinical utility of this treatment modality, we examined the thermal characteristics of canine and human brain undergoing active and passive surface cooling in intraoperative settings. Four patients with intractable epilepsy were treated(More)
We evaluated the protein levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S-100beta in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in an animal model of acute spinal cord injury and ascertained their relevance. Spinal cord injury was induced at the T8 level in rats. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the protein levels of NSE and S-100beta in both(More)