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Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) Vif is essential for viral evasion of host antiviral factor CEM15/APOBEC3G. We report that Vif interacts with cellular proteins Cul5, elongins B and C, and Rbx1 to form an Skp1-cullin-F-box (SCF)-like complex. The ability of Vif to suppress antiviral activity of APOBEC3G was specifically dependent on Cul5-SCF function,(More)
New outbreaks of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) among injecting drug users (IDUs) are spreading in China along heroin trafficking routes. Recently, two separate HIV-1 epidemics among IDUs were reported in Guangxi, Southern China, where partial sequencing of the env gene showed subtype C and circulating recombinant form (CRF) AE. We evaluated(More)
APOBEC3G, which induces hypermutations in newly synthesized viral DNA, is suppressed by HIV-1 Vif, acting through Cul5-ElonginB-ElonginC E3 ubiquitin ligase. We have now characterized a novel SOCS box in HIV-1 Vif that mediates its interaction with ElonginC. In this SOCS box, alanine replaces the consensus cysteine in the previously identified SOCS box.(More)
APOBEC3G exerts its antiviral activity by targeting to retroviral particles and inducing viral DNA hypermutations in the absence of Vif. However, the mechanism by which APOBEC3G is packaged into virions remains unclear. We now report that viral genomic RNA enhances but is not essential for human APOBEC3G packaging into human immunodeficiency virus type 1(More)
OBJECTIVES Burma produces approximately 60% of the world's heroin, Laos is the third leading producer. Recent outbreaks of injecting drug use and HIV-1 in Burma, India, China, and Vietnam have been associated with Burmese and Laotian overland heroin trafficking routes. We analyzed findings from narcotics investigations, molecular epidemiology studies of(More)
The human APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases are potent inhibitors of diverse retroviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). HIV-1 Vif forms an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex with cullin 5 (CUL5), elongin B and elongin C , which promotes the polyubiquitination and degradation of APOBEC3 substrates. Here we demonstrate in human T cells that core(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) virion infectivity factor (Vif) causes the proteasome-mediated destruction of human antiviral protein APOBEC3G by tethering it to a cellular E3 ubiquitin ligase composed of ElonginB, ElonginC, Cullin5, and Rbx2. It has been proposed that HIV Vif hijacks the E3 ligase through two regions within its C-terminal domain: a BC(More)
BACKGROUND We sought to examine coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among injection drug users (IDUs) in Guangxi, China. METHODS A longitudinal cohort of IDUs (547 subjects) was established to study risk factors for bloodborne infections. At each visit, participants completed questionnaires defining demographic(More)
Human enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has been a leading cause of childhood infection in China since 2008. Epidemic and molecular characteristics of HFMD have been examined in many areas of China, including the central and southern regions. However, clinical and genetic characterization of EV71 in the northeastern(More)