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Reversible acetylation of alpha-tubulin has been implicated in regulating microtubule stability and function. The distribution of acetylated alpha-tubulin is tightly controlled and stereotypic. Acetylated alpha-tubulin is most abundant in stable microtubules but is absent from dynamic cellular structures such as neuronal growth cones and the leading edges(More)
beta-Arrestins bind to activated seven transmembrane-spanning (7TMS) receptors (G protein-coupled receptors) after the receptors are phosphorylated by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), thereby regulating their signaling and internalization. Here, we demonstrate an unexpected and analogous role of beta-arrestin 2 (betaarr2) for the single(More)
The type-II TGF beta receptor mediates many of the biological responses to TGF beta. An examination of the expression of the type-II TGF beta receptor during mouse embryogenesis therefore provides specific information about the role of TGF beta during embryogenesis than has been available to date. We have isolated the genomic murine homologue of the human(More)
DNA-responsive checkpoints prevent cell-cycle progression following DNA damage or replication inhibition. The mitotic activator Cdc25 is suppressed by checkpoints through inhibitory phosphorylation at Ser287 (Xenopus numbering) and docking of 14-3-3. Ser287 phosphorylation is a major locus of G2/M checkpoint control, although several checkpoint-independent(More)
BACKGROUND Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the substantia nigra (SN). Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) levels increase in patients with PD, although the effects of this increment remain unclear. We have examined the mesostriatal system in adult mice deficient in Smad3, a molecule involved in the(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and type I interferon (IFN) autocrine/paracrine loops are recognized as key mediators of signaling cascades that control a variety of cellular functions. Here, we describe a novel mechanism by which Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists utilize these two autocrine/paracrine loops to differentially regulate the(More)
The Mad (mothers against decapentaplegic) gene in Harvard University Drosophila and the related Sma genes in Caenorhabditis Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138-2019 elegans have been implicated in signal transduction by in vertebrates and shown to mediate TGF␤ family signals Berkeley, California 94720-3204 in these organisms as well. To date, there are five(More)
Smad proteins are the most well-characterized intracellular effectors of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signal. The ability of the Smads to act as transcriptional activators via TGF-beta-induced recruitment to Smad binding elements (SBE) within the promoters of TGF-beta target genes has been firmly established. However, the elucidation of(More)
Microtubule associated protein tau is considered to play roles in some types of human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE). In this study, the full-length and several truncated human tau proteins were expressed from E. coli and purified. Using GST pull down, co-immunoprecipitation assay and tau-coated ELISA, the molecular interaction between tau(More)