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Reversible acetylation of alpha-tubulin has been implicated in regulating microtubule stability and function. The distribution of acetylated alpha-tubulin is tightly controlled and stereotypic. Acetylated alpha-tubulin is most abundant in stable microtubules but is absent from dynamic cellular structures such as neuronal growth cones and the leading edges(More)
beta-Arrestins bind to activated seven transmembrane-spanning (7TMS) receptors (G protein-coupled receptors) after the receptors are phosphorylated by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), thereby regulating their signaling and internalization. Here, we demonstrate an unexpected and analogous role of beta-arrestin 2 (betaarr2) for the single(More)
DNA-responsive checkpoints prevent cell-cycle progression following DNA damage or replication inhibition. The mitotic activator Cdc25 is suppressed by checkpoints through inhibitory phosphorylation at Ser287 (Xenopus numbering) and docking of 14-3-3. Ser287 phosphorylation is a major locus of G2/M checkpoint control, although several checkpoint-independent(More)
BACKGROUND Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the substantia nigra (SN). Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) levels increase in patients with PD, although the effects of this increment remain unclear. We have examined the mesostriatal system in adult mice deficient in Smad3, a molecule involved in the(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and type I interferon (IFN) autocrine/paracrine loops are recognized as key mediators of signaling cascades that control a variety of cellular functions. Here, we describe a novel mechanism by which Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists utilize these two autocrine/paracrine loops to differentially regulate the(More)
The Mad (mothers against decapentaplegic) gene in Harvard University Drosophila and the related Sma genes in Caenorhabditis Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138-2019 elegans have been implicated in signal transduction by in vertebrates and shown to mediate TGF␤ family signals Berkeley, California 94720-3204 in these organisms as well. To date, there are five(More)
BACKGROUND In response to DNA damage, cells undergo either cell-cycle arrest or apoptosis, depending on the extent of damage and the cell's capacity for DNA repair. Cell-cycle arrest induced by double-stranded DNA breaks depends on activation of the ataxia-telangiectasia (ATM) protein kinase, which phosphorylates cell-cycle effectors such as Chk2 and p53 to(More)
BACKGROUND Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (ESCC) is a major subtype of esophageal cancer causing significant morbility and mortality in Asia. Mechanism of initiation and progression of this disease is unclear. Tumor initiating cells (TICs) are the subpopulation of cells which have the ability to self-renew, as well as, to drive initiation and(More)
Infiltration of myeloid cells in the tumor microenvironment is often associated with enhanced angiogenesis and tumor progression, resulting in poor prognosis in many types of cancer. The polypeptide chemokine PK2 (Bv8, PROK2) has been shown to regulate myeloid cell mobilization from the bone marrow, leading to activation of the angiogenic process, as well(More)