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The causes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a devastating human neurodegenerative disease, are poorly understood, although the protein TDP-43 has been suggested to have a critical role in disease pathogenesis. Here we show that ataxin 2 (ATXN2), a polyglutamine (polyQ) protein mutated in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2, is a potent modifier of TDP-43(More)
Next-generation massively parallel sequencing technologies provide ultrahigh throughput at two orders of magnitude lower unit cost than capillary Sanger sequencing technology. One of the key applications of next-generation sequencing is studying genetic variation between individuals using whole-genome or target region resequencing. Here, we have developed a(More)
Using next-generation sequencing technology alone, we have successfully generated and assembled a draft sequence of the giant panda genome. The assembled contigs (2.25 gigabases (Gb)) cover approximately 94% of the whole genome, and the remaining gaps (0.05 Gb) seem to contain carnivore-specific repeats and tandem repeats. Comparisons with the dog and human(More)
Here we present the first diploid genome sequence of an Asian individual. The genome was sequenced to 36-fold average coverage using massively parallel sequencing technology. We aligned the short reads onto the NCBI human reference genome to 99.97% coverage, and guided by the reference genome, we used uniquely mapped reads to assemble a high-quality(More)
The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas belongs to one of the most species-rich but genomically poorly explored phyla, the Mollusca. Here we report the sequencing and assembly of the oyster genome using short reads and a fosmid-pooling strategy, along with transcriptomes of development and stress response and the proteome of the shell. The oyster genome is(More)
TDP-43 and FUS are RNA-binding proteins that form cytoplasmic inclusions in some forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Moreover, mutations in TDP-43 and FUS are linked to ALS and FTLD. However, it is unknown whether TDP-43 and FUS aggregate and cause toxicity by similar mechanisms. Here, we exploit a(More)
The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a strictly subterranean, extraordinarily long-lived eusocial mammal. Although it is the size of a mouse, its maximum lifespan exceeds 30 years, making this animal the longest-living rodent. Naked mole rats show negligible senescence, no age-related increase in mortality, and high fecundity until death. In(More)
Cytokinesis in animal and fungal cells utilizes a contractile actomyosin ring (AMR). However, how myosin II is targeted to the division site and promotes AMR assembly, and how the AMR coordinates with membrane trafficking during cytokinesis, remains poorly understood. Here we show that Myo1 is a two-headed myosin II in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and that(More)
Bats are the only mammals capable of sustained flight and are notorious reservoir hosts for some of the world's most highly pathogenic viruses, including Nipah, Hendra, Ebola, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). To identify genetic changes associated with the development of bat-specific traits, we performed whole-genome sequencing and comparative(More)
YPK9 (Yeast PARK9; also known as YOR291W) is a non-essential yeast gene predicted by sequence to encode a transmembrane P-type transport ATPase. However, its substrate specificity is unknown. Mutations in the human homolog of YPK9, ATP13A2/PARK9, have been linked to genetic forms of early onset parkinsonism. We previously described a strong genetic(More)