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Although renin, the rate-limiting enzyme of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), was first discovered by Robert Tigerstedt and Bergman more than a century ago, the research on the RAS still remains stronger than ever. The RAS, once considered to be an endocrine system, is now widely recognized as dual (circulating and local/tissue) or multiple hormonal(More)
Previous studies in humans have demonstrated a high co-morbidity between alcoholism and smoking. This co-morbidity between alcohol and nicotine dependence can be attributed, in part, to common genetic factors. In rodents, behavioral and physiological responses to alcohol and nicotine also appear to share common genetic influences. In this report, the(More)
We and others have previously shown that high levels of ANG II are accumulated in the rat kidney via a type 1 (AT(1)) receptor-mediated mechanism, but it is not known which AT(1) receptor is involved in this process in rodents. We tested the hypothesis that AT(1a) receptor-deficient mice (Agtr1a-/-) are unable to accumulate ANG II intracellularly in the(More)
Angiotensin IV (ANG IV), an active ANG II fragment, has been shown to induce systemic and renal cortical effects by binding to ANG IV (AT(4)) receptors and activating unique signaling transductions unrelated to classical type 1 (AT(1)) or type 2 (AT(2)) receptors. We tested whether ANG IV exerts systemic and renal cortical effects on blood pressure, renal(More)
The kidney plays a fundamental role in maintaining body salt and fluid balance and blood pressure homeostasis through the actions of its proximal and distal tubular segments of nephrons. However, proximal tubules are well recognized to exert a more prominent role than distal counterparts. Proximal tubules are responsible for reabsorbing approximately 65% of(More)
Using type 1a angiotensin receptor (AT1a) receptor-deficient (Agtr1a-/-) mice and in vivo autoradiography, we tested the hypothesis that intracellular uptake of ANG II in the kidney and adrenal glands is primarily mediated by AT1a receptors and that the response is regulated by prevailing endogenous ANG II. After pretreatment of wild-type (Agtr1a+/+) and(More)
Clinical studies have shown that patients with early Type 2 diabetes often have elevated serum glucagon rather than insulin deficiency. Imbalance of insulin and glucagon in favouring the latter may contribute to impaired glucose tolerance, persistent hyperglycaemia, microalbuminuria and glomerular injury. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that(More)
In the present study, we investigated the role of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT(2)) receptor in the regulation of regional haemodynamics in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). We tested the hypothesis that AT(2) receptor activation directly causes vasodilatation. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal, mesenteric and hindquarters flows and(More)
1. Spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto rats underwent a two-stage operation for the implantation of Doppler flow probes and intravascular catheters to determine the regional haemodynamic profiles of the angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonists, CV-11974 and EXP 3174. 2. Angiotensin II was given before and up to 24 h after the intravenous(More)
Expression of a cytosolic cyan fluorescent fusion protein of angiotensin II (ECFP/ANG II) in proximal tubules increases blood pressure in rodents. To determine cellular signaling pathways responsible for this response, we expressed ECFP/ANG II in transport-competent mouse proximal convoluted tubule cells (mPCT) from wild-type (WT) and type 1a ANG II(More)