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The biogeographical relationships between far-separated populations, in particular, those in the mainland and islands, remain unclear for widespread species in eastern Asia where the current distribution of plants was greatly influenced by the Quaternary climate. Deciduous Oriental oak (Quercus variabilis) is one of the most widely distributed species in(More)
Rice is one of the major crops of southern China and Southeast Asia. Rice paddies are one of the largest agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) sources in this region because of the application of large quantities of nitrogen (N) fertilizers to the plants. In particular, the production of methane (CH4) is a concern. Investigating a reasonable amount of(More)
In this paper, we consider the problem of robust digit recognition in real car environments. We choose to utilize newly-collected CU-Move database [2]. We address the problem using two integrated approaches. First, we consider array processing , enhancement and noise adaptation techniques as an integrated solution. This approach reduced the word error rate(More)
In this paper, we present a noise estimation algorithm using an adaptive smoothing factor based on the Teager energy operator (TEO) energy ratio instead of a voice activity detector (VAD) for a dual-microphone noise suppression system. Conventionally, a dual-microphone noise suppression system consists of two independent systems: a beamformer or adaptive(More)
Human-computer interaction for in-vehicle information and navigation systems is a challenging problem because of the diverse and changing acoustic environments. It is proposed that the integration of video and audio information can significantly improve dialog system performance, since the visual modality is not impacted by acoustic noise. In this paper, we(More)
While a number of studies have investigated various speech enhancement and noise suppression schemes, most consider either a single channel or array processing framework. Clearly there are potential advantages in leveraging the strengths of array processing solutions in suppressing noise from a direction other than the speaker, with that seen in single(More)
Among a number of studies which have investigated various speech enhancement and processing schemes for in-vehicle speech systems , the delay-and-sum beamforming (DASB) and adaptive beamforming are two typical methods that both have their advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, we propose a novel combined fixed/adaptive beamforming solution (CFA-BF)(More)